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  Jewish History Timelines - Chronology - Dates - Judaism

 

 


The following Jewish history timeline details some (not all, of course) of the important events in Jewish history, specifically, historical events in Jewish history which are discussed in this website. Each of the tables below are organized as a chronology; specifically, the following Jewish history timeline also lists one (or more) of the dates for these events in Jewish history based on traditional chronological sources in Judaism such as the 2nd century C.E. work by Rabbi Jose (or Yose) Ben Halafta, a student of Rabbi Akiva, entitled the "Seder Olam Rabbah" ("Great Order Of The World" in Hebrew), as well as the mathematical calculations of various secular scholars.
Note that the historical dates in Jewish history that are displayed in each table are not necessarily meant to be derived from each other. I am simply comparing the given dates in the Seder Olam Rabbah for each event in Hebrew/Jewish history with the corresponding modern Hebrew/Jewish calendar dates for each event in Hebrew/Jewish history as well as the secular dates for each event in Hebrew/Jewish history derived from various calculations made by secular scholars. Regarding the modern Hebrew/Jewish calendar tables below, there is an assumption that the Seder Olam Rabbah dates can be applied to the modern Hebrew/Jewish calendar, and that the Seder Olam Rabbah dates as well as the modern Hebrew/Jewish calendar dates can be applied to the traditional/historic and modern Gregorian calendars.
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The Orthodox Jewish Timeline : Chronological Dates Based On The Seder Olam Rabbah Dates
(1) With A Year 0
Seder Olam Rabbah Date Modern Proleptic Gregorian Calendar Date Event In Jewish History
2892 868 B.C.E. David becomes King of Israel.
2924 836 B.C.E. Solomon becomes King of Israel.
2928 832 B.C.E. Jerusalem: First Temple started.
2935 825 B.C.E. First Temple completed. It takes 7 1/2 years to build the Temple and was completed in the autumn of the 11th year of Solomon's reign.
2964 796 B.C.E. In the region of Judea: Division of the Kingdom of Israel into two kingdoms: the Kingdom of Israel in northern Judea and the Kingdom of Judah in southern Judea.
3338 422 B.C.E. Babylonians destroy First Temple on the 9th of Av and exile the Jews to Babylon.
3389 371 B.C.E. Babylon falls to Medes and Persians under Darius the Mede and Cyrus the Great of Persia; Cyrus reigns; Proclamation of Cyrus, he permits Jews to return to Eretz Yisrael. Return to Israel. Minority returns in Nissan - same month as Exodus from Egypt. Persian Empire.
3391 369 B.C.E. Darius the Persian permits Jews to rebuild Temple in Jerusalem. Second Temple started. Medean Empire.
3408 352 B.C.E. Second Temple completed.
3828 68 C.E. Romans destroy Second Temple - 9th of Av. About 2,000,000 killed. Cruelty, Exile, Slavery. Destruction of Second Temple by Romans (according to some, the year was 3829 = 69 C.E.).

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The Orthodox Jewish Timeline : Chronological Dates Based On The Seder Olam Rabbah Dates
(1) Without A Year 0
Seder Olam Rabbah Date Traditional or Historic Proleptic Gregorian Calendar Date Event In Jewish History
2892 869 B.C.E. David becomes King of Israel.
2924 837 B.C.E. Solomon becomes King of Israel.
2928 833 B.C.E. Jerusalem: First Temple started.
2935 826 B.C.E. First Temple completed. It takes 7 1/2 years to build the Temple and was completed in the autumn of the 11th year of Solomon's reign.
2964 797 B.C.E. In the region of Judea: Division of the Kingdom of Israel into two kingdoms: the Kingdom of Israel in northern Judea and the Kingdom of Judah in southern Judea.
3338 423 B.C.E. Babylonians destroy First Temple on the 9th of Av and exile the Jews to Babylon.
3389 372 B.C.E. Babylon falls to Medes and Persians under Darius the Mede and Cyrus the Great of Persia; Cyrus reigns; Proclamation of Cyrus, he permits Jews to return to Eretz Yisrael. Return to Israel. Minority returns in Nissan - same month as Exodus from Egypt. Persian Empire.
3391 370 B.C.E. Darius the Persian permits Jews to rebuild Temple in Jerusalem. Second Temple started. Medean Empire.
3408 353 B.C.E. Second Temple completed.
3828 67 C.E. Romans destroy Second Temple - 9th of Av. About 2,000,000 killed. Cruelty, Exile, Slavery. Destruction of Second Temple by Romans (according to some, the year was 3829 = 68 C.E.).

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The Modern Hebrew/Jewish Calendar Timeline : Chronological Dates Based On The Seder Olam Rabbah Dates
(1) With A Year 0
Seder Olam Rabbah Date Modern Hebrew/Jewish Calendar Modern Proleptic Gregorian Calendar Date Event In Jewish History
2892 2894 866 B.C.E. David becomes King of Israel.
2924 2926 834 B.C.E. Solomon becomes King of Israel.
2928 2930 830 B.C.E. Jerusalem: First Temple started.
2935 2937 823 B.C.E. First Temple completed. It takes 7 1/2 years to build the Temple and was completed in the autumn of the 11th year of Solomon's reign.
2964 2966 794 B.C.E. In the region of Judea: Division of the Kingdom of Israel into two kingdoms: the Kingdom of Israel in northern Judea and the Kingdom of Judah in southern Judea.
3338 3340 420 B.C.E. Babylonians destroy First Temple on the 9th of Av and exile the Jews to Babylon.
3389 3391 369 B.C.E. Babylon falls to Medes and Persians under Darius the Mede and Cyrus the Great of Persia; Cyrus reigns; Proclamation of Cyrus, he permits Jews to return to Eretz Yisrael. Return to Israel. Minority returns in Nissan - same month as Exodus from Egypt. Persian Empire.
3391 3393 367 B.C.E. Darius the Persian permits Jews to rebuild Temple in Jerusalem. Second Temple started. Medean Empire.
3408 3410 350 B.C.E. Second Temple completed.
3828 3830 70 C.E. Romans destroy Second Temple - 9th of Av. About 2,000,000 killed. Cruelty, Exile, Slavery. Destruction of Second Temple by Romans (according to some, the year was 3829 = 71 C.E.).

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The Modern Hebrew/Jewish Calendar Timeline : Chronological Dates Based On The Seder Olam Rabbah Dates
(1) Without A Year 0
Seder Olam Rabbah Date Modern Hebrew/Jewish Calendar Traditional or Historic Proleptic Gregorian Calendar Date Event In Jewish History
2892 2894 867 B.C.E. David becomes King of Israel.
2924 2926 835 B.C.E. Solomon becomes King of Israel.
2928 2930 831 B.C.E. Jerusalem: First Temple started.
2935 2937 824 B.C.E. First Temple completed. It takes 7 1/2 years to build the Temple and was completed in the autumn of the 11th year of Solomon's reign.
2964 2966 795 B.C.E. In the region of Judea: Division of the Kingdom of Israel into two kingdoms: the Kingdom of Israel in northern Judea and the Kingdom of Judah in southern Judea.
3338 3340 421 B.C.E. Babylonians destroy First Temple on the 9th of Av and exile the Jews to Babylon.
3389 3391 370 B.C.E. Babylon falls to Medes and Persians under Darius the Mede and Cyrus the Great of Persia; Cyrus reigns; Proclamation of Cyrus, he permits Jews to return to Eretz Yisrael. Return to Israel. Minority returns in Nissan - same month as Exodus from Egypt. Persian Empire.
3391 3393 368 B.C.E. Darius the Persian permits Jews to rebuild Temple in Jerusalem. Second Temple started. Medean Empire.
3408 3410 351 B.C.E. Second Temple completed.
3828 3830 69 C.E. Romans destroy Second Temple - 9th of Av. About 2,000,000 killed. Cruelty, Exile, Slavery. Destruction of Second Temple by Romans (according to some, the year was 3829 = 70 C.E.).

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The Secular Historical Timeline : Chronological Date Calculations Of Various Secular Historians
Seder Olam Rabbah Date Proleptic Gregorian Calendar Date (Traditional/Historic and Modern) Event In Jewish History
2892 David ruled from either 1011 B.C.E. or 1010 B.C.E. or 1005 B.C.E. or 1004 B.C.E. or 1001 B.C.E. or 1000 B.C.E. or 990 B.C.E. until either 971 B.C.E. or 970 B.C.E. or 968 B.C.E. or 967 B.C.E. or 965 B.C.E. David becomes King of Israel.
2924 Solomon ruled from either 970 B.C.E. or 968 B.C.E. or 967 B.C.E. or 965 B.C.E. or 960 B.C.E. until 931 B.C.E. or 930 B.C.E. or 928 B.C.E. or 927 B.C.E. or 922 B.C.E. Solomon becomes King of Israel.
2928 (1014 B.C.E. or 1013 B.C.E.) or (971 B.C.E. or 970 B.C.E.) or (968 B.C.E. or 967 B.C.E.) or (958 B.C.E. or 957 B.C.E.) Jerusalem: First Temple started.
2935 1006 B.C.E. or 963 B.C.E. 960 B.C.E. or 950 B.C.E. First Temple completed. It takes 7 1/2 years to build the Temple and was completed in the autumn of the 11th year of Solomon's reign.
2964 930 B.C.E. or 929 B.C.E. or 927 B.C.E. or 926 B.C.E. or 922 B.C.E. In the region of Judea: Division of the Kingdom of Israel into two kingdoms: the Kingdom of Israel in northern Judea and the Kingdom of Judah in southern Judea.
3338 587 B.C.E. or 586 B.C.E. Babylonians destroy First Temple on the 9th of Av and exile the Jews to Babylon.
3389 539 B.C.E. or 538 B.C.E. or 537 B.C.E. or 536 B.C.E. Babylon falls to Medes and Persians under Darius the Mede and Cyrus the Great of Persia; Cyrus reigns; Proclamation of Cyrus, he permits Jews to return to Eretz Yisrael. Return to Israel. Minority returns in Nissan - same month as Exodus from Egypt. Persian Empire.
3391 520 BCE - 515 B.C.E. or 521 B.C.E. - 516 B.C.E. Darius the Persian permits Jews to rebuild Temple in Jerusalem. Second Temple started. Medean Empire.
3408 536 B.C.E. or 535 B.C.E. (foundations laid for Second Temple, but work suspended thereafter); building of Second Temple resumes from either 520 B.C.E. to 515 B.C.E. or from 521 B.C.E. to 516 B.C.E. (521 B.C.E. or 520 B.C.E. : work resumes on Second Temple; Second Temple completed in either 516 B.C.E. or 515 B.C.E.) Second Temple completed.
3828 70 C.E. Romans destroy Second Temple - 9th of Av. About 2,000,000 killed. Cruelty, Exile, Slavery. Destruction of Second Temple by Romans (according to some, the year was 3829 = 71 C.E.).

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Additional notes about the Kingdom of Israel in northern Judea (consisting of 10 of the 12 Hebrew tribes: Asher, Dan, Ephraim, Gad, Issachar, Manasseh, Naphtali, Reuben, Simeon, and Zebulon) and the Kingdom of Judah in southern Judea (consisting of the remaining two Hebrew tribes: Judah and Benjamin), both of whom were created by the splitting of the united Kingdom of Israel (united in the sense that it included the lands of all twelve Hebrew tribes) into two kingdoms following the death of King Solomon:
• Kingdom of Israel in northern Judea: Nablus (Shechem) was the first capital of this kingdom (1 Kings 12:25), afterwards Tirza (1 Kings 14:17). Samaria was subsequently chosen as the capital (1 Kings 16:24), and continued as such until the destruction of the kingdom by the Assyrians (2 Kings 17:5).
• Kingdom of Judah in southern Judea: Jerusalem remained the sole capital of the southern kingdom of Judah, continuing its status as a capital city after the division of the united Kingdom of Israel into two kingdoms.
Additional significant events in Jewish history:
• 725 B.C.E. - 722 B.C.E. (according to secular historical dates; alternate scholarly date claims are: 724 B.C.E. - 721 B.C.E. or 723 B.C.E. - 720 B.C.E.): Siege of the northern Kingdom of Israel (also known as Samaria which was taken from the city of the same name in Judea) by Assyria, led by King Shalmanezer V (also spelled: Shalmanassar V, Shalmaneser V, or Shalmanezzer V; he changed his original name of Ulula to that of Shalmaneser when he became king.), who ruled Assyria from 727 B.C.E. until 722 B.C.E. (according to secular historical dates; alternate scholarly date claims are: 726 B.C.E. until 721 B.C.E. or 725 B.C.E. until 720 B.C.E.).
• 722 B.C.E. (alternate scholarly date claims are: 721 B.C.E. or 720 B.C.E.) : King Shalmanezer V of Assyria dies during the siege of the northern Kingdom of Israel and was succeeded by King Sargon II of Assyria who ruled Assyria from 722 B.C.E. until 705 B.C.E. (according to secular historical dates; alternate scholarly date claims are: 721 B.C.E. until 704 B.C.E. or 720 B.C.E. until 703 B.C.E.). King Sargon II himself records the capture of the city of Samaria in 722 B.C.E. (alternate scholarly date claims are: 721 B.C.E. or 720 B.C.E.). End of the northern Kingdom of Israel. Its inhabitants - the 10 Hebrew tribes and some members of the priestly Levites - are exiled to Assyria and assimilated. Some inhabitants escape to the southern Kingdom of Judah where they are incorporated into the Hebrew tribes of Judah and Benjamin. In addition, some members of the priestly Levites also escape the Assyrians and join their bretheren in the Kingdom of Judah.
• 587 B.C.E. or 586 B.C.E. (according to secular historical dates): King Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylonia, who reigned from 605 B.C.E. until 562 B.C.E. (according to secular historical dates), defeats the southern Kingdom of Judah and destroys Jerusalem and the Temple (specifically, the First Temple). Most of the Kingdom of Judah's inhabitants are exiled to Babylonia. Some are allowed to remain in Judah.