Know Bible Facts From Fiction, Science and Prophecy for today!
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Who is the Muslim God Allah? Is he Yahweh? 

By B. Walker

Now before we start a war we need to get our historical facts straight, many claim that the God worshiped by the Muslim faith Allah and the God of the Jews “Yahweh” are one and the same. Muslims worship “Allah” who if traced thru history is the moon god! The symbol of the crescent noon. Note the religion of Islam has as its focus of worship a deity by the name of "Allah." The Muslims claim that Allah in pre-Islamic times was the biblical God of the Patriarchs, prophets, and apostles. The issue is thus one of continuity. Was "Allah" the biblical God or a pagan god in Arabia during early times?

The Muslim's claim of continuity is essential to their attempt to convert Jews and Christians for if "Allah" is part of the flow of divine revelation in Scripture, then it is the next step in their minds in biblical religion. Thus we should all become Muslims. But, on the other hand, if Allah was a pre- Islamic I use this term loosely pagan deity, then its core claim is refuted. Religious claims often fall before the results of hard sciences such as archeology. We can endlessly speculate about the past or go and dig it up and see what the evidence reveals. This is the only way to find out the truth concerning the origins of Allah and his followers. As we shall see, the hard evidence

demonstrates that the god Allah was a pagan deity. In fact, he was the Moon-god who was married to the sun goddess and the stars were his daughters.

The reader must know that Ishmael was a Hebrew. The fight for Islam and Allah is much deeper and has religious roots dating back to Abraham and is a proving point for both Jews and Islam. Jews believe that God promised Abraham a son of promise and that, this son would be given the land flowing with milk and honey, and that in this land would be the people of promise and the people of God. Abraham was old and so was his wife Sari/Sarah; she overheard Abraham speaking with the angel of the Lord and scoffed at the thought that she could give birth seeing as how she was past the child bearing age. To make a long story short she decided to help God along and gave her handmaiden Hagar, to Abraham to produce this promised son and they named him Ishmael, Sari/Sarah later becomes angry and jealous over this arrangement and tells Abraham to cast the child and woman out and he did, and an angel of the lord spared the woman and child who were languishing in the desert and pronounced that Ishmael would be a great nation and this is where the peoples of Arab descent come from. Abraham and Sari/Sarah would have Isaac and he was the promised one of God who would produce Jacob later named Israel for which the country is now named.

God promised Abraham that through his promised son Isaac he would be blessed with children that could not be numbered as the sand of the seas but this promise was only through Isaac and not the children of Ishmael. The land of Israel was given and promised to the children of Abraham through his son Isaac and Jacob and so we have the battle that rages today? Why ?because those Arab children also known as the Palestinians who were also the Philistines from David and Goliath fame, also hold that this land is holy to them because when they were cast out from Abraham they wondered around in the wilderness of Beersheba (The desert of southern Israel) when the angel of the lord saved Hagar and her son he produced a Well for them to drink from, and Ishmael became a great Archer and he dwelt in the land of Paran; (modern Mecca) where his mother found him a wife who was Egyptian as was Hagar. Found in Genesis 20:1-18, Gen 21:1-34. Note; Also read Revelation 6:1-17 the first horsemen of the Apocalypse on the white horse is the symbol of the Archer as Ishmael.

Revelation 6:1-3 (King James Version)

1. And I saw when the Lamb opened one of the seals, and I heard, as it were the noise of thunder, one of the four beasts saying, Come and see.

2. And I saw, and behold a white horse: and he that sat on him had a bow (The Archer); and a crown (Or a kingdom of power)was given unto him: and he went forth conquering, and to conquer.(Keep in mind you can subdue without ever raising a hand or firing a shot. Just by changing times and laws)

3. And when he had opened the second seal, I heard the second beast say, Come and see.

The next seal ushers in war and destruction by the fiery red horse and it continues on, now back to the land for peace.

Now what does this mean from both sides from a religious stand point? If God cast out Ishmael and Hagar they were not the ones of promise, they have no right to the land of Israel, and the Jews have the right to the land of Israel by the decree of God and his promise of Isaac the land belongs solely to the Jews. If the Jew can be cast off or out of their land or destroyed from being a people this would mean that Yahweh/Jehovah God of the Jews is wrong and the land belongs to the so called Palestinians and God’s promise to the Jews through Isaac and Jacob were lies. This is also the reason you have the argument as to if Allah and Yahweh are one and the same.

According to the Bible, Beersheba was the southernmost city of the territories actually settled by Israelites, hence the expression "from Dan to Beersheba" to describe the whole kingdom. Beersheba is mentioned in the Book of Genesis in connection with Abraham the Patriarch and his pact with Abimelech. Isaac built an altar in Beersheba (Genesis 26:23–33). Jacob had his dream about a stairway to heaven after leaving Beersheba. (Genesis 28:10–15 and 46:1–7). Beersheba was the territory of the tribe of Shimon and Judah (Joshua 15:28 and 19:2). The prophet Elijah took refuge in Beersheba when Jezebel ordered him killed (I Kings 19:3). The sons of the prophet Samuel were

judges in Beersheba (I Samuel 8:2). Saul, Israel's first king, built a fort for his campaign against the Amalekites (I Samuel 14:48 and 15:2–9). The prophet Amos mentions the city in regard to idolatry .(This is a very telling part of the story and covers the rest of our investigation.) (Amos 5:5 and 8:14). And so the battle rages on. The hot spot for both of these people is the city of Jerusalem that once again God gave to the Jews forever to be their possession. And both want to claim it for their own capital of their perspective states.

This is the whole reason that the Arabs and surrounding nations want to destroy Israel and all of its people, for as long as their remains one Jew it means that they still remain the chosen people of God not because they are the very righteous, but because of God’s promise to Abraham long ago, and like Cain and Abel the jealousy is beyond understanding and can only lead to the death of one or the other, as the roots are deep and at the very foundation of these peoples. If they ever achieve any kind of peace you can be guaranteed it will not be lasting, this you can take to the bank as fact.

Archaeologists have uncovered temples to the Moon-god throughout the Middle East. From the mountains of Turkey to the banks of the Nile, the most wide-spread religion of the ancient world was the worship of the Moon-god. In the first literate civilization, the Sumerians have left us thousands of clay tablets in which they described their religious beliefs. As

demonstrated by Sjoberg and Hall, the ancient Sumerians worshipped a Moon-god who was called many different names. The most popular names were Nanna, Suen and Asimbabbar. His symbol was the crescent moon or Bull with the horns to make the shape of the crescent.. Given the amount of artifacts concerning the worship of this Moon-god, it is clear that this was the dominant religion in Sumeria.

The cult of the Moon-god was the most popular religion throughout ancient Mesopotamia. The Assyrians, Babylonians, and the Akkadians took the word Suen and transformed it into the word Sin as their favorite name for the Moon-god. As Prof. Potts pointed out, "Sin is a name essentially Sumerian in origin which had been borrowed by the Semites. "

In ancient Syria and Canna, the Moon-god Sin was usually represented by the moon in its crescent phase. At times the full moon was placed inside the crescent moon to emphasize all the phases of the moon. The sun-goddess was the wife of Sin and the stars were their daughters. For example, Istar was a daughter of Sin. Sacrifices to the Moon-god are described in the Pas Shamra texts. In the Ugaritic texts, the Moon-god was sometimes called Kusuh or Cush who was the son of Ham son of Noah.

 

In Persia, as well as in Egypt, the Moon- god is depicted on wall murals and on the heads of statues. He was the Judge of men and gods. The Old Testament constantly rebuked the worship of the Moon-god (see: Deut. 4:19;17:3; II Kngs. 21:3,5; 23:5; Jer. 8:2; 19:13; Zeph. 1:5, etc.) When Israel fell into idolatry, it was usually the cult of the Moon-god. As a matter of fact, everywhere in the ancient world, the symbol of the crescent moon can be found on seal impressions, steles, pottery, amulets, clay tablets, cylinders, weights, earrings, necklaces, wall murals, etc. In Tell-el-Obeid, a copper calf was found with a crescent moon on its forehead. An idol with the body of a bull and the head of man has a crescent moon inlaid on its forehead with shells. In Ur, the Stela of Ur-Nammu has the crescent symbol placed at the top of the register of gods because the Moon-god was the head of the gods. Even bread was baked in the form of a crescent as an act of devotion to the Moon-god. The Ur of the Chaldees was so devoted to the Moon-god that it was sometimes called Nannar in tablets from that time period.

A temple of the Moon-god has been excavated in Ur by Sir Leonard Woolley. He dug up many examples of moon worship in Ur and these are displayed in the British Museum to this day. Harran was likewise noted for its devotion to the Moon-god. In the 1950's a major temple to the Moon-god was excavated at Hazer in Palestine. Two idols of the moon god were found. Each was a stature of a man sitting upon a throne with a crescent moon carved on his chest. The accompanying inscriptions make it clear that these were idols of the Moon-god. Several smaller statues were also found which were identified by their inscriptions as the "daughters" of the Moon-god. What about Arabia? As pointed out by Prof. Coon, "Muslims are notoriously loath to preserve traditions of earlier paganism and like to garble what pre-Islamic history they permit to survive in anachronistic terms."

During the nineteenth century, Amaud, Halevy and Glaser went to Southern Arabia and dug up thousands of Sabean, Minaean, and Qatabanian inscriptions which were subsequently translated. In the 1940's, the archeologists G. Caton Thompson and Carleton S. Coon made some amazing discoveries in Arabia. During the 1950's, Wendell Phillips, W.F. Albright, Richard Bower and others excavated sites at Qataban, Timna, and Marib (the ancient capital of Sheba). Thousands of inscriptions from walls and rocks in Northern Arabia have also been collected. Reliefs and votive bowls used in worship of the "daughters of Allah" have also been discovered. The three daughters, al-Lat, al-Uzza and Manat are sometimes depicted together with Allah the Moon-god represented by a crescent moon above them. The archeological evidence demonstrates that the dominant religion of Arabia was the cult of the Moon-god.

In Old Testament times, Nabonidus (555-539 BC), the last king of Babylon, built Tayma, Arabia as a center of Moon-god worship. Segall stated, "South Arabia's stellar religion has always been dominated by the Moon-god in various variations." Many scholars have also noticed that the Moon-god's name "Sin" is a part of such Arabic words as "Sinai," the "wilderness of Sin," etc. When the popularity of the Moon-god waned elsewhere, the Arabs remained true to their conviction that the Moon-god was the greatest of all gods. While they worshipped 360 gods at the Kabah in Mecca, the Moon-god was the chief deity. Mecca was in fact built as a shrine for the Moon-god. I believe this has its roots from the time that Hagar heard the voice of the angel of the Lord and likely looked up and saw the crescent moon in the sky., this however is pure speculation on my part, but there is no doubt that this worship is found in antiquity.

This is what made it the most sacred site of Arabian paganism. In 1944, G. Caton Thompson revealed in her book, The Tombs and Moon Temple of Hureidha, that she had uncovered a temple of the Moon-god in southern Arabia. The symbols of the crescent moon and no less than twenty-one inscriptions with the name Sin were found in this temple. An idol which may be the Moon-god himself was also discovered. This was later confirmed by other well-known archeologists.

The evidence reveals that the temple of the Moon-god was active even in the Christian era. Evidence gathered from both North and South Arabia demonstrates that Moon-god worship was clearly active even in Muhammad's day and was still the dominant cult. According to numerous inscriptions, while the name of the Moon-god was Sin, his title was al- ilah, i.e. "the deity," meaning that he was the chief or high god among the gods. As Coon pointed out, "The god Il or Ilah was originally a phase of the Moon God." The Moon-god was called al- ilah, i.e. the god, which was shortened to Allah in pre-Islamic times. The pagan Arabs even used Allah in the names they gave to their children. For example, both Muhammad's father and uncle had Allah as part of their names.

The fact that they were given such names by their pagan parents proves that Allah was the title for the Moon-god even in Muhammad's day. Prof. Coon goes on to say, "Similarly, under Mohammed's tutelage, the relatively anonymous Ilah, became Al-Ilah, The God, or Allah, the Supreme Being."

This fact answers the questions, "Why is Allah never defined in the Qur'an? Why did Muhammad assume that the pagan Arabs already knew who Allah was?" Muhammad was raised in the religion of the Moon-god Allah. But he went one step further than his fellow pagan Arabs. While they believed that Allah, i.e. the Moon-god, was the greatest of all gods and the supreme deity in a pantheon of deities, Muhammad decided that Allah was not only the greatest god but the only god.

 

In effect he said, "Look, you already believe that the Moon-god Allah is the greatest of all gods. All I want you to do is to accept that the idea that he is the only god. I am not taking away the Allah you already worship. I am only taking away his wife and his daughters and all the other gods." This is seen from the fact that the first point of the Muslim creed is not, "Allah is great" but "Allah is the greatest," i.e., he is the greatest among the gods. Why would Muhammad say that Allah is the "greatest" except in a polytheistic context? The Arabic word is used to contrast the greater from the lesser. That this is true is seen from the fact that the pagan Arabs never accused Muhammad of preaching a different Allah than the one they already worshipped. This "Allah" was the Moon-god according to the archeological evidence. Muhammad thus attempted to have it both ways. To the pagans, he said that he still believed in the Moon-god Allah. To the Jews and the Christians, he said that Allah was their God too. But both the Jews and the Christians knew better and that is why they rejected his god Allah as a false god.

Al-Kindi, one of the early Christian apologists against Islam, pointed out that Islam and its god Allah did not come from the Bible but from  paganism . They did not worship the God of the Bible but the Moon-god and his daughters al-Uzza, al-Lat and Manat. Dr. Newman concludes his study of the early Christian-Muslim debates by stating, "Islam proved itself to be...a separate and antagonistic religion which had sprung up from idolatry." Islamic scholar Caesar Farah concluded "There is no reason, therefore, to accept the idea that Allah passed to the Muslims from the Christians and Jews." The Arabs worshipped the Moon-god as a supreme deity. But this was not biblical monotheism. While the Moon-god was greater than all other gods and goddesses, this was still a polytheistic pantheon of deities. Now that we have the actual idols of the Moon-god, it is no longer possible to avoid the fact that Allah was a pagan god in pre-Islamic times. Is it any wonder then that the symbol of Islam is the crescent moon? That a crescent moon sits on top of their mosques and minarets? That a crescent moon is found on the flags of Islamic nations? That the Muslims fast during the month which begins and ends with the appearance of the crescent moon in the sky?

The pagan Arabs worshipped the Moon-god Allah by praying toward Mecca several times a day; making a pilgrimage to Mecca; running around the temple of the Moon-god called the Kabah; kissing the black stone; killing an animal in sacrifice to the Moon-god; throwing stones at the devil; fasting for the month which begins and ends with the crescent moon; giving alms to the poor, etc.

The Muslim's claim that Allah is the God of the Bible and that Islam arose from the religion of the prophets and apostles is refuted by solid, overwhelming archeological evidence. Islam is nothing more than a revival of the ancient Moon-god cult. It has taken the symbols, the rites, the ceremonies, and even the name of its god from the ancient pagan religion of the Moon-god. As such, it is sheer idolatry and must be rejected by all those who follow the Torah and Gospel. But wait the story does not end here!

A little more to the story.Mecca is in Saudi Arabia, and the holiest meeting site in Islam, closely followed by Medina. Muslim tradition attributes the beginning of Mecca to Ishmael's descendants. In the 7th century, the Islamic prophet Muhammad proclaimed Islam in the city which was by then an important trading center. After 966, Mecca was led by local sharifs. When the authority of the Ottoman Empire in the area collapsed in 1916, the local rulers established the Hashemite Kingdom of Hejaz. The Hejaz kingdom, including Mecca, was absorbed by the Saudis in 1925. In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure.The modern day city is the capital of Saudi Arabia's Makkah Province, in the historic Hejaz region.  Every year, millions of Muslims perform the Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca walking seven times around the Kaaba and more than 13 million people visit Mecca annually. Muslims insist that all good Muslims should make this pilgrimage at least once in their lifetime. When it comes to the promise that the angel of God made to Hagar about her son Ishmael, becoming a great nation this holds true even to this date and the very reason that Islam holds Mecca in such high esteem. This is why it’s Prophet Mohamed, had to come and Lord over the teachings of Jesus because once again you have the conflict of whose God is true. It is said that Mohamed in "Jerusalem" descended into heaven from the place known as the dome of the rock and the reason that the Islamic people hold this place in such high regard is because this is where he is said to be coming back. As we will learn Islam believes in Jesus but just as a prophet, and holds Mohamed in much higher esteem. They go on to say that in the end Mahdi, will return before Jesus Christ to rule the world, and that the so called anti-Christ will be a one eyed man with the words Curfer (infidel) on his forehead. Not all but some believe this.

The subject of the end times is known as eschatology and covers both what happens after death and the events at the end of time. Christianity and Islam share some similar beliefs, with much different outcomes. For one, in Christianity and Islam, Jesus Christ plays a central role in the timing of the end; Islam believes the return of Jesus will occur at the end, like Christians. Muslims also believe in the resurrection of both the wicked and the righteous and the final judgment. Islam and Christianity both proclaim an eternal dwelling of the lost and saved, in either Hell or Heaven (Paradise).Therefore, in many ways, the structure of the end (eschatology) is similar to Christianity. Christians and Muslims have two different views of what the final matter is. Both views of the end, however, cannot be true since they are diametrically opposed to each other.

The Muslim Jesus descends and converts the world to Islam, kills the Jews, breaks crosses, declares himself a Muslim and gets married. He dies after 40-years. Therefore, in the Muslim view, the end has a much different outcome compared to the Christian or the Jewish view. All Muslims do not agree on every aspect of Muslim eschatology. Sunnis and Shiites have a different view on the role of Muslim end time figure, known as the Mahdi, who will arrive before the return of Jesus. The Shiites view this person as someone who will establish order in the world and turn people to Islam before the return of Jesus. Even the particular events of the end are not completely spelled out in the Quran.

The Hadith supplements what the Quran does not say.Belief in the end-times or the last days is mandatory in Islam. It is listed as the fifth article of faith.  The Five articles of faith in Islam 1. God: He is One; his nature and qualities are chiefly revealed in his ninety-nine 'Most Beautiful Names'.2. His angels: these include four archangels (e.g. Gabriel) and an indefinite number of ordinaryangels. There are also creatures between angels and men called jinn, some of which are good andsome evil.3. His books: Scriptures were revealed to Adam, Seth, Enoch and Abraham, but these have now been lost. These are the main Scriptures: a. The Pentateuch (tawrat)b. The Psalms (zabur)(Both of these are said by Muslims to have been corrupted or misinterpreted by theJews.)c. The Gospel (injil)(said by Muslims to have been corrupted or misinterpreted by the Christians)d. The Quran, revealed to Muhammad4. His apostles: The Quran names twenty-eight apostles, most of whom are biblical characters.The six greatest are Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, (Jesus) and Muhammad.5. The Last Day: the day of judgment, when all will be judged according to their deeds, andadmitted to Paradise or to hell. Some summaries add the following two doctrines:6. The predestination of good and evil by God.7. The bodily resurrection of all people at the last day.

 

Next see part Two

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Harran was noted for its devotion to the moon-god. Note the presence of the crescent moon on the Babylonian moon-god that had enormous impact on the Middle East religion

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    Nannar with the 'three muses' and Eternally Fruiting Orb - Ur-Nammu (Maspero 655)

Ur of the Chaldees was devoted to the moon-god  it was sometimes called Nannar in tablets from that time period. A temple of the moon-god was excavated in Ur by Sir Leonard Woolley. He dug up many examples of moon-worship that are now displayed in the British Museum The moon god was also likened to the bull and links to Egypt..
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Anatolian mural from Karum - notice the boxed pre-Islamic Crescent-and-Star glyph

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"Sîn is a name used mostly in Sumerian in origin which had been borrowed by the Semites" (Austin Potts, The Hymns and Prayers to the Moon-god, Sin, PhD., 1971, Dropsie College, p 4)

           Above Anatolian mural from Karum

By B. Walker

 Part Two continued from above

In order to understand the next clue to the struggle between Islam and the Jews we need to look at their so called holy sites and one of these is known as The Dome of the Rock, being among a complex of buildings on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem (believed to be where King Solomon the son of David built the first Jewish temple) (the other principal building being the Al-Aqsa Mosque), is one of the holiest sites in Islam, following Mecca and Medina. Its significance stems from the religious beliefs regarding the rock at its heart. According to Islamic tradition, the rock is the spot from which Muhammad ascended to Heaven accompanied by the angel Gabriel. Further, Muhammad was taken here by Gabriel to pray with Abraham, Moses, and Jesus Christ. An important distinction is that this is to Islam what the Transfiguration of Jesus is to Christians, a fulfillment of scripture. After Muhammad's return, he called all that would believe him to join with him and be Muslim. It was at this juncture some claim that Islam came into existence. Although it is traced with its symbol of the crescent moon and worship of the Apis to a much earlier time that I have covered above. According to Goitein, the inscriptions decorating the interior of the dome of the rock clearly display a spirit of polemic against Christianity, whilst stressing at the same time the Qur'anic doctrine that Jesus was a true prophet. The formula la sharika lahu 'God has no companion' is repeated five times, the verses from Sura Maryam 19:35-37, which strongly reaffirm Jesus' prophethood to God, are quoted together with the prayer: Allahumma salli ala rasulika wa'abdika 'Isa bin Maryam - "In the name of the One God (Allah) Pray for your Prophet and Servant Jesus son of Mary". He believes that this shows that rivalry with Christendom, together with the spirit of the Muslim mission to the Christians, was at work at the time of construction.

The Foundation Stone is the holiest site in Judaism. Just as Muslims pray towards the Kaaba at Mecca, the holiest site in Islam, Jews pray towards the Foundation Stone and hold the Wailing Wall in high esteem. Jews have traditionally regarded the location of the stone as the holiest spot on Earth, the site of the Holy of Holies during the Temple Period where the high Jewish priest would enter behind the veil to offer sacrifice for the sins of his people. In former times, some Jewish scholars thought that the location of the Holy of Holies was not known for certain; today this is a minority opinion.

The most propitious site for Jewish prayer is the spot that is nearest the Foundation Stone. Because Muslim authorities refused to permit Jewish prayer on the Temple Mount, the custom developed of praying near the Western Wall, since it was the site nearest to the Foundation Stone, or on the Mount of Olives facing the site of the Temple. Between 1948 and 1967, when Jordanian authorities refused permission to Jews to enter the Old City of Jerusalem, Jews made pilgrimages to rooftops on Mount Zion and prayed towards the site of the ancient Holy of Holies.  According to Jewish tradition, the stone is the site where Abraham prepared to sacrifice his son Isaac the son of promise!. So now we see why the tensions are so severe over the Temple Mount and this place known as the foundation stone.

In Christianity it is believed that during the time of the Byzantine Empire, near by the spot where the Dome was later constructed was where The Emperor Constantine’s mother built a small church, calling it the Church of St. Cyrus and St. John, later on enlarged and called the Church of the Holy Wisdom. Now about this information about

Constantine, I call it into question as you have to determine to your own satisfaction, if you believe that Constantine was a Christian, or just trying to unite the people under his own brand of religion to control the masses under state run religion. I believe the latter to be the case but let every man be convinced in his own mind!

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Al-Aqsa Mosque

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The Dome of the Rock, started in 689AD and finished about 691-692 AD

I will touch on another point of interest that needs to be addressed before I end here and that is the worship of the god Murduk who is associated with Jupiter. There is still much we need to learn about the origins of Allah, and in fact some claim that Allah in fact is the worship of the female deity Luna and there is some proof to back this up, it is claimed that the crescent moon relates back to the symbol of the Ouroboros or tail eating snake as found in the artifacts of Cleopatra who is said to have been an early alchemist, the serpent was set in the shape of circle and was said to be half light and half dark representing that man is both good and bad and light and dark. That through the act of the serpent eating its own tail it shows it is self sufficient, though it dies it recreates its self and this came to be known as the circle of life. The serpent or dragon eating its own tail has survived from antiquity and can be traced back to Ancient Egypt, circa 1600 B.C.E. From there it passed to Phoenicia and then to the Greek philosophers, who gave it the name Ouroboros ("the tail-devourer") Ouroboros is an ancient alchemy symbol depicting a snake or dragon swallowing its own tail, constantly creating itself and forming a circle. It is known by some as The Wheel of Time or the end of the age In Alchemy.

Alchemically, the ouroboros is also used as a purifying glyph. Ouroboros was and is the name for the Great World Serpent, encircling the Earth. The word Ouroboros is really a term that describes a similar symbol which has been cross-pollinated from many different cultures. It’s

symbolic connotation from this owes to the returning cyclical nature of the seasons; the oscillations of the night sky; self-fecundation; disintegration and re-integration; truth and cognition complete; the Androgyny; the primeval waters; the potential before the spark of creation; the undifferentiated; the Totality; primordial unity; self-sufficiency, and the idea of the beginning and the end as being a continuous unending principle and cycle. Ouroboros represents the conflict of life as well in that life comes out of life and death. 'My end is my beginning.' In a sense life feeds off itself, thus there are good and bad connotations which can be drawn. It is a single image with the entire actions of a life cycle - it begets, weds, impregnates, and slays itself, but in a cyclical sense, rather than linear.

 Do I believe this? No but you would be surprised who does, the symbol is in fact what we had been warned about in scripture and relates to the mystery religions of old. We are told that Satan is that serpent of old also called the devil that the god of this world has blinded our minds, and that serpent who has encased the world is none other than the devil himself. Further note that the sign of the Milky Way or tail eating serpent goes as follows: The Milky Way Galaxy is the inspiration for the symbol of the Ouroboros. Legend refers to a serpent of light residing in the heavens. The Milky Way is this serpent, and viewed at galactic central point near Sagittarius, this serpent eats its own tail. The Milky Way galaxy keeps a great time cycle that ends in catastrophic change. The sign of the Suntelia Aion also known as Saturn is the sun rising out of the mouth of the ouroboros, which will occur on the solstice December 21, 2012 which links with the Mayan Calendar  as a symbolic date for chaos or some believe the evolution of consciousness in the alchemy of time. This also goes to the return of the god, Quetzalcoatl who is referred to as the winged serpent by the Mayans, and accelerating Earth changes in the Ring of Fire. Saturn can be related back to the sign of Capricorn who is represent of Saturn and the god, Ninib. He (Saturn) is also known as the angel of death as he carried a scythe. Saturn is the sixth planet from the sun and the number six is the number of man. Saturn is the second largest planet after Jupiter who astrologically is the sign of Sagittarius and the God Marduk the Archer.

The Ouroboros is believed to have been inspired by the Milky Way as some ancient texts refer to a serpent of light residing in the heavens the Bible makes mention of this as well in Rev 12:1-17 is it possible that Luna is the god of, or wife or even mother to, Sagittarius The Archer who is in the heart of the summer Milky Way and represents an antitype of The planet Jupiter/Marduk the Ancient god of Ishmael who is represented in astrology as the Archer and also the first horsemen of the Apocalypse? Sagittarius is shown in astronomy as the Archer he is the ancient God Marduk and was worshiped by the peoples and followers of Ishmael. Allah in actual form is a male moon god and it was said that the sun was his wife and that the morning or day star was their son is this day star Jupitor? . Notice that the cresent moon the symbol of Islam is not only the crescent moon but also has a star that usually follows. The moon god also relates back to the Bull that was worshipped in Egypt and note Hagar the mother to Ishmael the Archer was from Exypt.

The bible also confirms this assumption, as Ishmael was cast out from Abraham they wondered around in the wilderness of Beersheba (The desert of southern Israel) when the angel of the lord saved Hagar and her son he produced a Well for them to drink from, and Ishmael became a great Archer and he dwelt in the land of Paran; (modern Mecca) where his mother found him a wife who was Egyptian. Genesis 20:1-18, Gen 21:1-34. Let’s look at other points of interest here as well so we can get a full picture here of what it is that we have been looking at and why I bring up this God called Marduk.

Daniel 8 (King James Version)

8. In the third year of the reign of king Belshazzar (Ruler of Babylon) in prophecy, possibly later a type of world leader. In history he was the son of Nabonidus, he devoted himself to the worship of the moon god,

Sin aka the Muslim faith this is where the symbol of the crescent moon comes from that sits upon most Mosques. Though the narrative and its details stand outside history and in many ways points to the future, the setting of the feast at which the temple vessels from Jerusalem were desecrated has been remembered from actual Neo-Babylonian cult practice. In Babylon, the image of Marduk, was served meals daily in a style befitting the divine king, including musical accompaniment and beautifully-arranged desserts of fruits.

 

After the god's meal, water in a basin was brought and offered to the idol to wash its fingers. According to several extant descriptions, the dishes of food that had been presented to the image were then sent to the king for his consumption. The food had been blessed by its proximity to the god, and the blessing was now transferable to the king. One exception is recorded, on a tablet from Uruk, which mentions that the crown prince…..this was Belshazzar…. enjoyed the royal privilege, The ritual importance of the god's sacred leftovers is illustrated in an inscribed claim of Sargon III

,"the citizens of Babylon and Borsippa the temple personnel, the scholars and the administrators of the country who had looked upon him Merodoch-Baladan, as their master now brought the leftovers of Bel and Sarpanitu of Babylon and Nabu and  Tasmetu of Borsippa to me at Dur-Ladinni and asked me to enter Babylon" (Oppenheim, pp 188ff)

Idols of conquered cities were ordinarily brought to Babylon and set in positions of reverence to Marduk within his temple. The Jews, having no idol of Yahweh, had been forced to give up the vessels of Solomon's Temple, which, it appears, were used to serve Marduk's sacred repast, ritually shared by Belshazzar. The story would continue when the hand

of God cast judgement upon Babylon and its king (Or Ruler), when the hand wrote upon the wall the final judgment that would be interpreted by Daniel the Prophet, who gave its meaning as; "Thou art weighed in the balance and art found wanting, Thy kingdom is divided, and given to the Medes and Persians “(Modern Iran). 

Daniel 5:27-28 I believe that this is the astrological sign of Libra and its balances or times of Judgment, also ruled by Venus, this perfectly coincides with the third Horsemen of the Apocalypse and the rider of the black horse found in Rev 6:5-6. 5. And when he had opened the third seal, I heard the third beast say, Come and see. And I beheld, and lo a black horse; and he that sat on him had a pair of balances in his hand.(Libra ruled by Venus)  6. And I heard a voice in the midst of the four beasts say, A measure of wheat for a penny, and three measures of barley for a penny; and see thou hurt not the oil and the wine.

Look also to what is said of the Archer, or the followers of Islam and its God Marduk below how it relates today to the four horsemen of the Apocalypse.

Rev 6:1-2.

1.And I saw when the Lamb opened one of the seals, and I heard, as it were the noise of thunder, one of the four beasts saying, Come and see.  2. And I saw, and behold a white horse: and he that sat on him had a bow (The Archer); and a crown was given unto him: and he went forth conquering, and to conquer.

Let’s now continue along these lines and include some other points to this mixture of legends to include “The Ouroboros or snake eating its own tail, it can be viewed from space and is our Milky Way galaxy as shown in the picture above. Can we put all of this in context? Yes

Watch how it all fits together when compared to the book of Revelations below.

Revelation 6 (King James Version)

1.And I saw when the Lamb opened one of the seals, and I heard, as it were the noise of thunder, one of the four beasts saying, Come and see.

2.And I saw, and behold a white horse: and he that sat on him had a bow (he is the Archer or symbol of the god Marduk/ Sagittarius or Jupiter a great world leader and follower of the religions of Sin); and a crown was given unto him: and he went forth conquering (subduing by any means possible), and to conquer.

3.And when he had opened the second seal, I heard the second beast say, Come and see. 

4.And there went out another horse that was red: and power was given to him that sat thereon to take peace from the earth, and that they should kill one another: and there was given unto him a great sword.(This is the sign of the god of war Mars who is also known as the god Nergal, and Aries the Ram who Daniel names as Persia or modern Iran)

5.And when he had opened the third seal, I heard the third beast say, Come and see. And I beheld, and lo a black horse; and he that sat on him had a pair of balances in his hand. (This is the sign of Libra or Venus the time for judgment as stated to King Belshazzar by Daniel, when the hand of God, tells him you are weighted in the balance and found wanton. Starvation worldwide while those elite eat from the treasures of God) 

6.And I heard a voice in the midst of the four beasts say, A measure of wheat for a penny, and three measures of barley for a penny; and see thou hurt not the oil and the wine. 

7.And when he had opened the fourth seal, I heard the voice of the fourth beast say, Come and see. 

8.And I looked, and behold a pale horse: and his name that sat on him was Death, and Hell followed with him. And power was given unto them over the fourth part of the earth, to kill with sword, and with hunger, and with death, and with the beasts of the earth. (This is none other than Saturn who is also called the angel of death because of his scythe he is the harvester the one who brings in the Suntilla or end of the Aion or age. He is also known as Capricorn the goat and the god Ninib, he is the sign of the Antichrist and the fake return of our Lord. He is the Serpent of old to some he is the feathered serpent known as Quetzalcoatl. ) 

9.And when he had opened the fifth seal, I saw under the altar the souls of them that were slain for the word of God, and for the testimony which they held: 

10.And they cried with a loud voice, saying, How long, O Lord, holy and true, dost thou not judge and avenge our blood on them that dwell on the earth? 

11.And white robes were given unto every one of them; and it was said unto them, that they should rest yet for a little season, until their fellowservants also and their brethren, that should be killed as they were, should be fulfilled. 

12.And I beheld when he had opened the sixth seal, and, lo, there was a great earthquake; and the sun became black as sackcloth of hair, and the moon became as blood; 

13.And the stars of heaven fell unto the earth, even as a fig tree casteth her untimely figs, when she is shaken of a mighty wind. 

14.And the heaven departed as a scroll when it is rolled together; and every mountain and island were moved out of their places. 

15.And the kings of the earth, and the great men, and the rich men, and the chief captains, and the mighty men, and every bondman, and every free man, hid themselves in the dens and in the rocks of the mountains; 

16.And said to the mountains and rocks, Fall on us, and hide us from the face of him that sitteth on the throne, and from the wrath of the Lamb:

17.For the great day of his wrath is come; and who shall be able to stand?

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Al-Aqsa Mosque

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Al-Aqsa Mosque complex, and the dome of the rock

"Sin.—The moon-god occupied the chief place in the astral triad. Its other two members, Shamash the sun and Ishtar the planet Venus (Venus is found in the sign of Libra the bearer of the scales also known as the third horseman of the Apocalypse), were his children. Thus it was, in effect, from the night that light had emerged....In his physical aspect Sin—who was venerated at Ur under the name of Nannar—was an old man with along beard the color of lapis-lazuli. He normally wore a turban. Every evening he got into his barque—which to mortals appeared in the form of a brilliant crescent moon—and navigated the vast spaces of the nocturnal sky. Some people, however, believed that the luminous crescent was Sin’s weapon. But one day the crescent gave way to a disk which stood out in the sky like a gleaming crown. There could be no doubt that this was the god’s own crown; and then Sin was called "Lord of the Diadem". These successive and regular transformations lent Sin a certain mystery. For this reason he was considered to be ‘He whose deep heart no god can penetrate’... Sin was also full of wisdom. At the end of every month the gods came to consult them and he made decisions for them...His wife was Ningal, ‘the great Lady’. He was the father not only of Shamash and Ishtar but also of a son Nusku, the god fire." (Larousse Encyclopedia of Mythology, 1960, p 54-56)

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The worship of the Moon god " Sîn" was widespread and common during the time of Abraham. Contrary to Muslim claims, Abraham was asked to leave Ur of the Chaldees where the moon god Sîn was worshipped and migrate to Canaan and worship Jehovah Keep in mind that even the gods of Canaan were not the God of Abraham as Canaan was cursed because of the sins of his father Ham who was the son of Noah who uncovered his fathers nakedness, one of the sons of Ham was Cush and its varient of spellings sush as Kish and its mountains, so Cush begot begot Nimrod who was a mighty hunter before the Lord, he to was an Archer and is believed to have built the tower of Babel that is believed to be a ziggurat. The Ur of Chaldees is in the region of Babylon. The Mesopotamian Ziggurat: Temple of the moon God 2100 BC attests to the antiquity of this Idolatry and was passed down to, and often emulated by the children of Israel where God several times punished them for Idolatry. "Sîn, moon god of Semitic origin, worshiped in ancient Middle Eastern religions. One of the principal deities in the Babylonian and Assyrian pantheons, he was lord of the calendar and of wisdom. The chief centers of his worship were at Harran and at Ur, where he was known as Nanna." (encyclopedia.com, Sîn) The tower of Babal in Gen 10 may in fact have been a Ziggurat.

 Nanna was worshipped in the ziggurat of Ur. There was also a smaller temple for Ningal the moon goddess. Nanna was worshipped both by a High Priestes and priests. Great Kings throughout history from Sargon 2600 BC to Nabonidus 550 BC had their daughters officiate as high-priestess of Nanna at Ur. The tradition begins with the first dynasties of Ur around 3400 BC and continued through to the fall of Ur around the time of Nabonidus, a period of some 3000 years. As we shall see this tradition continued for another 1700 years at Harran and still underlies the Islam of today.

 "The Sumerians, in the first literate civilization, left thousands of clay tablets describing their religious beliefs. As demonstrated by Sjöberg and Hall, the ancient Sumerians worshipped a moon-god who was called by many different names. The most popular names were Nanna, Suen, and Asimbabbar" (Mark Hall, A Study of the Sumerian Moon-god, Sin, PhD., 1985, University of Pennsylvania).

 Harran, is known as the City of the Moon God

At the Northernmost end of the Sumerian empire the city of Harran likewise had the Moon Deity as patron God, under the name of Sin. From about 2000 BC to 1200 AD Harran continued an evolving tradition of Moon God worship. Harran is the place of Abraham's family and ancestors and the centre of many of the early events of genesis, including the naming of Israel. As described by Ezekiel 27:23, Harran

along with Sheba and other cities were traders 'in blue clothes and broidered work, in chests of rich apparel , bound with cords and made of cedar.' The status of Sin was so great that from 1900 BC to 900 BC his name is witness to the forging of international treaties as the guarantor of the word of kings. The temple was resotred by Shalmanester of Assyria in the 9th century BC, and again by Asshurbanipal. About 550 BC, Nabonidus the last king of Babylon, who originated from Harran, rebuilt the temple of the Moon God, directed by a dream. His mother was high priestess at Harran and his daughter at Ur. Ironically his devotion to the Moon God caused a rfit between him and his people and contributed to his defeat by the Persians. The worship of the Moon God at Harran evolved with the centuries. It included E-hul-hul, the Temple of Rejoicing, and a set of temples of distinctive shape and colour dedicated to each of the seven planets as emissaries of the cosmic deity. A garlanded black bull was however sacrificed in public ceremony, as the bull was at Ur, and Moslem sources refer to seasonal weeping for Ta'uz at Harran, and up to the 10th century among bedouin in the desert.

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Above is actual drawing at the British Museum in London.

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The Mesopotamian Ziggurat: Temple of the moon God 2100 BC.

The ziggurat of Ur. , and the of the moon god Sîn who is seen being carried in procession to the temple called the "Hill of Heaven".

Stele of Nabonidus

 "His symbol was the crescent moon. Given the amount of artifacts concerning the worship of this moon-god, it is clear that this was the dominant religion in Sumeria. The cult of the moon-god was the most popular religion throughout ancient Mesopotamia. The Assyrians, Babylonians, and Arkkadians took the word Suen and transformed it into the word Sîn as their favourite name for this deity." (Austin Potts, The Hymns and Prayers to the Moon-god, Sin, PhD., 1971, Dropsie College, p.2).

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Stele of Nabonidus

Marduk (Sumerian spelling in Akkadian: AMAR.UTU 𒀫𒌓 "solar calf"; perhaps from MERI.DUG; Biblical Hebrew מְרֹדַךְ Merodach; Greek Μαρδοχαῖος, Mardochaios) was the Babylonian name of a late-generation god from ancient Mesopotamia and patron deity of the city of Babylon, who, when Babylon became the political center of the Euphrates valley in the time of Hammurabi (18th century BCE), started to slowly rise to the position of the head of the Babylonian pantheon, a position he fully acquired by the second half of the second millennium BCE. In the perfected system of astrology, the planet Jupiter was associated with Marduk by the Hammurabi period.

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Murduk (Sumerian spelling in Akkadian: AMAR.UTU 𒀫𒌓

Babylonian

Marduk's original character is obscure but he was later on connected with water, vegetation, judgment, and magic. He was also regarded as the son of Ea (Sumerian Enki) and Damkina and the heir of Anu, but whatever special traits Marduk may have had were overshadowed by the political development through which the Euphrates valley passed and which led to imbuing him with traits belonging to gods who at an earlier period recognized as the heads of the pantheon. There are particularly two gods—Ea and Enlil—whose powers and attributes pass over to Marduk. In the case of Ea, the transfer proceeded pacifically and without effacing the older god. Marduk took over the identity of Asarluhi, the son of Ea and god of magic, so that Marduk was integrated in the pantheon of Eridu where both Ea and Asarluhi originally came from. Father Ea voluntarily recognized the superiority of the son and hands over to him the control of humanity. This association of Marduk and Ea, while indicating primarily the passing of the supremacy once enjoyed by Eridu to Babylon as a religious and political centre, may also reflect an early dependence of Babylon upon Eridu, not necessarily of a political character but, in view of the spread of culture in the Euphrates valley from the south to the north, the recognition of Eridu as the older centre on the part of the younger one.

Late Bronze Age

While the relationship between Ea and Marduk is marked by harmony and an amicable abdication on the part of the father in favour of his son, Marduk's absorption of the power and prerogatives of Enlil of Nippur was at the expense of the latter's prestige. After the days of Hammurabi, the cult of Marduk eclipsed that of Enlil; although Nippur and the cult of Enlil enjoyed a period of renaissance during the four centuries of Kassite control in Babylonia (c. 1570 BCE–1157 BCE), the definite and permanent triumph of Marduk over Enlil became felt within the Babylonian empire. The only serious rival to Marduk after ca. 1000 BCE was Aššur in Assyria. In the south, Marduk reigned supreme. He is normally referred to as Bel "Lord", also bel rabim "great lord", bêl bêlim "lord of lords", ab-kal ilâni bêl terêti "leader of the gods", aklu bêl terieti "the wise, lord of oracles", muballit mîte "reviver of the dead", etc.

When Babylon became the capital of Mesopotamia, the patron deity of Babylon was elevated to the level of supreme god. In order to explain how Marduk seized power, Enûma Elish was written, which tells the story of Marduk's birth, heroic deeds and becoming the ruler of the gods. This can be viewed as a form of Mesopotamian apologetics. Also included in this document are the fifty names of Marduk.

In Enûma Elish, a civil war between the gods was growing to a climactic battle. The Anunnaki gods gathered together to find one god who could defeat the gods rising against them. Marduk, a very young god, answered the call and was promised the position of head god.

To prepare for battle, he makes a bow
(The Archer ), fletches arrows, grabs a mace, throws lightning before him, fills his body with flame, makes a net to encircle Tiamat within it, gathers the four winds so that no part of her could escape, creates seven nasty new winds such as the whirlwind and tornado, and raises up his mightiest weapon, the rain-flood. Then he sets out for battle, mounting his storm-chariot drawn by four horses with poison in their mouths. In his lips he holds a spell and in one hand he grasps a herb to counter poison.

First, he challenges the leader of the Anunnaki gods, the dragon of the primordial sea Tiamat, to single combat and defeats her by trapping her with his net, blowing her up with his winds, and piercing her belly with an arrow.


Then, he proceeds to defeat Kingu, who Tiamat put in charge of the army and wore the Tablets of Destiny on his breast, and "wrested from him the Tablets of Destiny, wrongfully his" and assumed his new position. Under his reign humans were created to bear the burdens of life so the gods could be at leisure.
Marduk was depicted as a human, often with his symbol the snake-dragon which he had taken over from the god Tishpak. Another symbol that stood for Marduk was the spade.

Babylonian texts talk of the creation of Eridu by the god Marduk as the first city, "the holy city, the dwelling of their [the other gods] delight".
Nabu, god of wisdom, is a son of Marduk. The fifty names of Marduk (Keep in mind in Islam Allah has 90 names )
The fifty names of Marduk as listed in Enuma Elish tablets VIb to VII include: (10) Asaru (11) Asar-alim (12) Asar-alim-nunna (13) Tutu (14) Zi-ukkin-na (15) Zi-kug (16) Aga-kug (17) TUKU] (18) SHAZU (19) (ig) Zisi (20) SUHRIM (21) SUHGURIM (22) ZAHRIM (23) ZAHGURIM] (24) ENBILULU (25) EPADUN (26) ENBILULU-GUGAL (27) HEGAL] (28) SIR.SIR (29) MALAH] (30) Gil (31) GILMA (32) Agil-ma (33) Zu-lum (34) Mummu (35) ZULUMMAR (35) Gish-numun-abba (36) Lugal-eb-dubur (37) Pap-gal-gu-enna (38) Lugal-durmah (39) Adu-nunna (40) Dumu-dukug (41) Lugalkuduga (42) Lugalla-anna (43) Lugal-ugga (44) Nikingu (45) Kinma (46) ESIZKUR (47) Gibil (48) Addu (49) ASHARU (50) Niburu.

So now we ask how Marduk ties into the worship of the moon god, who is called by the name of Sin, and do they, tie in to each other? Is there historical proof that they’re even remotely related? During the conquest of culture and even when many were at peace warring factions would assimilate each other and in fact many would take the gods of their enemy’s captive and hold them in the temples of their gods as an ultimate slap in the face, and tribute to their own god. the captive enemy would be humbled before the might and power of the ruling deity.

Marduk and his ties to the Moon God worship and its history.
    Who's Who in Non-Classical Mythology, by Egerton Sykes. Oxford University Press. 1993.]

Anshar
The Babylonian god Anshar is the son of Tiamat and Apsu, brother and husband of Kishar.

Anu (An)
The son of Anshar and Kishar. He is the chief god of the Great Triad, with Ea and Enlil. In Sumerian mythology, he was the god of sky, husband of Nintu (Ki), and the father and ruler of all gods. One of four Sumerian creating gods, His son Nanna (the Moon God called SIN or Suen) married to Ningal.

Apsu
The Babylonian god Apsu is Tiamat's husband, the ruler of gods and underworld oceans. Father of Lahmu, Lahamu, Anshar and Kishar. Ea killed him.

Damkina
Damkina is the Babylonian earth mother goddess, the wife of Ea and mother of Marduk.

Ea
The Babylonian god Ea is the son of Anu and husband of Damkina, father of Marduk, god of wisdom, arts and crafts. Ea is the ruler of all gods after Apsu. In the Great Triad, Ea is the third with Anu and Enlil. In the Sumerian pantheon, Ea is the son of Nintu. Enlil is the brother to EA, Enlil married to Ningal and sired several children one being Nanna (the moon God Known as Sin or Suen)

Enlil
Enlil is the Babylonian god of the air between earth and sky. In Sumerian mythology he was the son of Anu and Nintu, the god of air and agriculture, and eventually co-ruler of the gods along with Anu. One of four Sumerian creating gods. Enlil  was husband to Ninlil their son Nanna (SIN or Suen the moon god) married Ningal. and had a son named Shamash the god of the sun and protector of the poor and travelers.

Ishtar
(Inanna)

Inanna is a great goddess, the goddess of love and war. She descended to the Underworld to try to regain her lover.

Kingu (Qingu)

Kingu is a dragon commander of Tiamat's forces against Marduk. Kingu is the counterpart of the sky god
Anu on the side of darkness. He may have been Tiamat's second husband. Ea fashioned humans from his blood when Kingu was ordered to be sacrificed.


Kishar

The Babylonian goddess Kishar is the daughter of Tiamat and Apsu, sister and wife of Anshar. mother of Anu and Nintu who were brother and sister that married. Two of their sons were EA and Enlil

Marduk

Glossary entry son of Ea and Damkina, grandson of Anu and Nintu (KI) Great grandson to Anshar and Kishar who were brother and sister, their father  was Apsu and Tiamat. Marduks father EA is said to have killed his grandfather. Marduk in the pantheon of gods is first cousin to the god who is known as the Moon god Sin, also called Nanna and Suen.

 
Mummu (Mommu)
The Babylonian god Mummu is the son of Tiamat and Anu or their chamberlain/intermediary. He is the god of mist and a craftsman god.

In one of the Babylonian creation stories, the original beings were Apsu, Mommu, and Tiamat. From them came the demons and the gods. The gods were Lakhmu, Lakhame, Ashar, Kishar, Anu, Ea, and others. Tiamat became a power of evil and Ea and followers, a power of good. This is the version on Ashurbaipal's library's Creation from about 650 B.C. There are other versions from Berosus (280 B.C.) and Damiscius (6th century A.D.)

Nintu (Ki)

A great Sumerian goddess, wife of Anu and mother of all gods, she created humans from clay. One of four Sumerian creating gods. she married Anu

Shamash
Son of Sin, god of the sun who protects the poor and travelers. Sin the father of Shamash was also known as Nanna and Suen, he married Ningal the mother of Shamash.

Sin
Moon god and the father of Shamash; counterpart of the Sumerian Nanna. also called Suen. he married to Ningal, he was cousin to Marduk whose father was EA.

Tiamat
Tiamat is the Babylonian Great Goddess, counterpart of Sumerian Nintu. Primeval chaos. Destroyed by her children to create the world.

  So now we see how Marduk ties into the worship of the moon god, who is called by the name of Sin, there is historical proof that they’re even remotely related in many ways in antiquity. During the conquest of culture and even when many were at peace warring factions would assimilate each other and would take the gods of their enemy’s captive and hold them in the temples of their gods as an ultimate slap in the face, and tribute to their own god. the captive enemy would be humbled before the might and power of the ruling deity, this practice was demonstrated many times in the bible even for the Israelites when Samuel the prophet was but a lad and God called unto him to be a prophet before Eli and prophecy against the house of Eli and Israel for idolatry, and God would let the ark of the covenant go captive to the Philistines after about 4,000 Israelites were killed the children of Israel conspired to bring out the Ark of the covenant from Shiloh thinking God would be with them, they let out such a shout when the ark arrived that the earth shook and this made the Philistines afraid because they knew what had happened before to the Egyptians during the Exodus.

After the philistines had gathered themselves, they went to battle and overcame Israel as the Lord had decreed by the prophet Samuel, some 30,000 men fell that day in a great slaughter, so the ark was captured and taken from Ebenezer to Ashdod cities of the Philistines and they set the alter in the house of their god Dagon, and when they arose that morning they image of Dagon was on its face before the ark of Yahweh. So they set the image of Dagon back up, and returned the next morning and again the image of their god was on its face, only this time its head and  both hands were broken off and only the torso was left of it. And so the hand of God was heavy upon the Philistines and he cast tumors on the people in Ashdod and its territory, so they feared the God of Israel and realized that the ark was the cause of their pains so they sent the ark to many of their different cities and it remained for seven months and great tumors were on all the men of the Philistines, so they conspired together and sent the ark of Yahweh away with a trespass offering of gold on a cart pulled by oxen and the ark went back to Israel. Keep in mind that the Philistines are the modern day Palestinians who to this day are at odds with Israel. Dagon the God of the Philistines was the principal deity of the Philistines, whose ancestors migrated to Palestinian shores from Crete. He was the god of fertility and crops. Dagon also figured prominently in the Philistine concepts of death and the afterlife. In addition to his role in the religion of the Philistines, Dagon was worshipped in the more general society of Canaanite peoples.

Some years after the arrival of the Minoan forefathers of the Philistines, the immigrants adopted elements of Canaanite religion. Eventually the primary religious focus shifted. The worship of the Great Mother, the original religion of the Philistines, was traded for the paying of homage to the Canaanite deity, Dagon.

Within the Canaanite pantheon, Dagon seems to have been second only to El in power. He was one of four sons born to Anu. Dagon was also the father of Baal. Among the Canaanites, Baal eventually assumed the position of god of fertility, which Dagon had previously occupied. Dagon was sometimes associated with the half fish female deity Derceto (which may account for the theory of Dagon being portrayed as half fish). Little else is known of Dagon's place in the Canaanite pantheon, but his role in Philistine religion as primary deity is quite evident. It is known, however, that the Canaanites imported Dagon from Babylonia.

The image of Dagon is a debated issue. The notion that Dagon was a god whose upper body was that of a man and the lower body that of a fish has been prevalent for decades. This idea may stem from a linguistic error in translating a derivative of the Semitic 'dag.' The word 'dagan' actually means 'corn' or 'cereal'. The name 'Dagon' itself dates back to at least 2500 BCE, and is most probably a derivative of a word from a dialect of the Semitic tongue. This notion that Dagon was represented in iconography and statuary as part fish in Philistia proper is not supported entirely by coins found in Phoenician and Philistine cities. In fact, there is no evidence in the archaeological record to support the theory that Dagon was thusly represented. Whatever the image, a varying perception of Dagon developed around the Mediterranean.

The worship of Dagon is quite evident in ancient Palestine. He was, of course, the foremost deity in the cities of Azotus, Gaza, and Ashkelon. The Philistines depended on Dagon for success in war and they offered various sacrifices for his favor. As previously mentioned, Dagon was also worshipped outside the confederacy of Philistine city-states, as in the case of the Phoenician city of Arvad. The religion of Dagon continued to at least the second century BCE, when the temple at Azotus was destroyed by Jonathan Macabeas.

Two textual sources that mention Dagon, and rulers and towns bearing his name merit note. The Bible and the Tel-el-Amarna letters made such mention. During the course of the establishment of the Israelite monarchy (ca 1000 BCE), the Philistine nation became the primary enemy of Israel. Due to this situation, Dagon is mentioned in passages such as Judges 16:23-24, I Samuel 5, and I Chronicles 10:10. Beth Dagon was a town in the land captured by the Israelites mentioned in Joshua 15:41 and 19:27, thus preserving the namesake of the deity. The Tel-el-Amarna letters (1480-1450 BCE) also mention the namesake of Dagon. In these letters, two rulers of Ashkelon, Yamir Dagan and Dagan Takala, were entered.

Despite any debate over the subject, it is apparent that Dagon was at the apex of the Philistine pantheon. He commanded religious reverence from both the Philistines and the broader Canaanite society. Dagon was indeed crucial to the cosmology of the Philistines and a vital force in their individual lives.

SOURCES:

1.The Bible (NIV Translation). Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1991.

2.DeVries, Lamoine. Cities of the Biblical World. Peabody, Massachussetts: 1997.

3.Keller, Werner. The Bible as History. New York: Bantam, 1980.

4.Knight, Kevin. 'Dagon', The Catholic Encyclopedia 4 (1999): www.newadvent.org, pg. 1-2.

5.The Revell Concise Bible Dictionary. Tarrytown, New York: Fleming H. Revell,