Know Bible Facts From Fiction, Science and Prophecy for today!
Gibil or Gebal the god of fire in Sumerian mythology, The God of Byblos the progeny of Hiram Abi, The heart of Freemasonry’s abominable roots and found in Psalms 83 as those who rise to destroy Israel in a confederacy or Islamic brotherhood.

By B Walker

Gibil  or Gebal in Sumerian mythology is the god of fire, variously of the son of An and Ki, An and Shala or of Ishkur and Shala. He later developed into the Akkadian god Gerra.

In some versions of the Enûma Eliš (((((Gibil and possibly Gebal from Byblos one of the oldest cities in Lebanon, a Phoenician, and Canaanite design said to be built by the god Cronus)))) is said to maintain the sharp point of weapons, have broad wisdom, and that his mind is "so vast that all the gods, all of them, cannot fathom it". Some versions state Gibil, as lord of the fire and the forge, also possesses wisdom of metallurgy compare this to that of Hiram Abiff aka Hiram Abi aka and called Huram Abi who helped build the Temple of Solomon at the call of Hiram king of Tyre, he was said to be a master artisan in metal and a stone squarer.

The name "Hiram Abiff" does not appear as such in the Bible, but there are three references to people named Hiram that are present and from this the freemason reference is gathered:

Hiram, King of Tyre, is credited in 2 Samuel 5:11 and 1 Kings 5:1-10 for having sent building materials and men for the original construction of the Temple in Jerusalem; the Masonic drama separate character named "Hiram, King of Tyre" is not likely an alias of "Hiram Abiff" as the former is clearly a king and the latter clearly a master craftsman, but they are often confused, this reminds me of a story told in American history of another famous mason and one of our presidents, where the president was clearly subservient to the Master mason, I will not touch on this now as that may come in a later article.

In 1 Kings 7:13–14, Hiram is described as the son of a widow from the tribe of Naphtali who was the son of a Tyrian bronze worker (Tyrian, aka Phoenician, Canaanite Or Gabelite), contracted by Solomon to cast the bronze furnishings and ornate decorations for the new temple. From this reference, Freemasons often refer to Hiram (with the added Abiff) as "the widow's son." Hiram lived or at least temporarily worked in clay banks (1 Kings 7:46-47) in the plain of the Jordan between Succoth and Zarethan/Zeredathah.

Hiram (often spelled Huram), a craftsman of great skill sent from Tyre. 2 Chronicles 2:13-14 relates a formal request from King Solomon of Jerusalem to King Hiram I of Tyre, for workers and for materials to build a new temple; King Hiram responds "And now I have sent a skillful man, endowed with understanding, Huram my master craftsman (the son of a woman of the daughters of Dan, and his father was a man of Tyre), skilled to work in gold and silver, bronze and iron, stone and wood, purple and blue, fine linen and crimson, and to make any engraving and to accomplish any plan which may be given to him (a man of vast knowledge remember what it stated above about metallurgy), with your skillful men and with the skillful men of my lord David your father." In the original Hebrew version of 2 Chronicles 2:13, the phrase translated above as "Huram my master craftsman" is "ḤWRM 'BY" Ḥiram 'abi. The secret to this tale is found in that in Freemasonry thought the tale would read Im, Abi, (Father) Re, or read another way Re is Father, the I AM. I cover this in another article, they also claim MU in Egyptian mythology who is known as Mem and Min who was Makom and Milcom of the Moabites, listed as an abomination to the Lord 1 Kings 1:11 Mem aka MU king over water when added with Samek also called Samael the Pillar becomes the angel of death known as Satan.

Note that the translation "Hiram my master craftsman" occurs only in the New King James Version. In other versions, "abi" is translated most often as "father", sometimes "master," or else "Hiram Abi" is left untranslated as a proper name. Peake's Commentary on the Bible, referring to Chronicles II-13, simply states "Huram-abi: RSV correctly reads this as the full name," and the English Standard Version gives the same translation "Huram-Abi" rather than "Huram my master...". Some might say that the word "Abiff" may have arisen by misunderstanding Hebrew אָבׅו 'āvīw = "his father". Historian Flavius Josephus in his Antiquities of the Jews (Chapter 3:76) refers to Hiram as an Artificer. "Now Solomon sent for an artificer out of Tyre, whose name was Hiram: he was by birth of the tribe of Naphtali, on his mother's side (for she was of that tribe); but his father was Ur, of the stock of the Israelites."

In his book The Sufis, the Afghan scholar Idries Shah suggested that Mansur al-Hallaj might have been the origin of the character Hiram Abiff in the Freemasonic Master Mason ritual. The link, he believes, was through the Sufi sect Al-Banna ("The Builders") who built the Al-Aqsa Mosque and the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem. This fraternity could have influenced some early masonic guilds which borrowed heavily from the Oriental architecture in the creation of the Gothic style

The only way to truly understand any of this unifacation of the gods and traditions is to delve into what they mean and who they are so this being said lets look at the other name for Gibil and that was Gerra.

So who is Gerra? Gerra (also known as Girra) is the Babylonian and Akkadian god of fire, derived from the earlier Sumerian deity Gibil. He is the son of Anu and Antu. Ancient texts are a wonderful way to discover just what the thought of our origins are and in order to find truth we must look at all aspects of the origins of these thoughts and clearly look to their roots. Our next step is to see what legends tell us about who Anu and Abtu are.

In Sumerian mythology, Anu (also An; (from Sumerian *An = sky, heaven)) was a sky-god, the god of heaven, lord of constellations, king of gods, spirits and demons, and dwelt in the highest heavenly regions. It was believed that he had the power to judge those who had committed crimes, and that he had created the stars as soldiers to destroy the wicked. His attribute was the royal tiara, most times decorated with two pairs of bull horns that shape the fertile crescent, it is where we get the idea of the half moon, and was the idea behind the golden Calf worship of the Children of Israel during the Exodus 32:4-10  Marduk is the "bull of Utu". Shiva's steed is Nandi, the Bull. The sacred bull survives in the constellation Taurus. The bull whether lunar as in Mesopotamia and Egypt or solar as in India, is the subject of various other cultural and religious incarnations, as well as modern mentions in new age cultures. Marduk is associated with the planet Jupiter and the the Sign of Sagittarius, I often refer to this as the first horseman of the Apocalypse and the rider of Revelation 6:1-2 the rider with the bow going about to conquering and to conquer, or better said subduing and to subdue, the archer of Islam. . .

He was one of the oldest gods in the Sumerian pantheon, and part of a triad including Enlil, god of the air and Enki, god of water. He was called Anu by the Akkadians. By virtue of being the first figure in a triad consisting of Anu, Enlil, and Enki (also known as Ea), Anu came to be regarded as the father and at first, king of the gods. Anu is so prominently associated with the E-anna temple in the city of Uruk (biblical Erech built by Nimrod  the rebellious king Genesis 10:10) in southern Babylonia that there are good reasons for believing this place to have been the original seat of the Anu cult. If this is correct, then the goddess Inanna (or Ishtar) of Uruk may at one time have been his consort.

Sumerian religion

Anu had several consorts, the foremost being Ki (earth), Nammu who is said to mean , and Uras. By Ki he was the father of, among others, the Annuna gods. By Nammu he was the father of, among others, Enki and Ningikuga. By Uras he was the father of Nin'insinna. According to legends, heaven and earth were once inseparable until An and Ki bore Enlil, god of the air, who cleaved heaven and earth in two. An and Ki were, in some texts, identified as brother and sister being the children of Anshar and Kishar. Ki later developed into the Akkadian goddess Antu.

Anu existed in Sumerian cosmogony as a dome that covered the flat earth; Outside of this dome was the primordial body of water known as Tiamat (not to be confused with the Subterranean "Apsû").

In Sumerian, the designation "An" was used interchangeably with "the heavens" so that in some cases it is doubtful whether, under the term, the god An or the heavens is being denoted. The Akkadians inherited An as the god of heavens from the Sumerian as Anu-, and in Akkadian cuneiform, the DINGIR character may refer either to Anum, or to the Akkadian word for god, ilu-, and consequently had two phonetic values, an and il. Hittite cuneiform as adapted from the Old Assyrian kept the an value but abandoned il.

Assyro-Babylonian religion

The doctrine once established remained an inherent part of the Babylonian-Assyrian religion and led to the more or less complete disassociation of the three gods constituting the triad from their original local limitations. An intermediate step between Anu viewed as the local deity of Uruk, Enlil as the god of Nippur, and Ea as the god of Eridu is represented by the prominence which each one of the centres associated with the three deities in question must have acquired, and which led to each one absorbing the qualities of other gods so as to give them a controlling position in an organized pantheon. For Nippur we have the direct evidence that its chief deity, En-lil, was once regarded as the head of the Sumerian pantheon. The sanctity and, therefore, the importance of Eridu remained a fixed tradition in the minds of the people to the latest days, and analogy therefore justifies the conclusion that Anu was likewise worshipped in a centre which had acquired great prominence.

The summing-up of divine powers manifested in the universe in a threefold division represents an outcome of speculation in the schools attached to the temples of Babylonia, but the selection of Anu, Enlil (and later Marduk), and Ea for the three representatives of the three spheres recognized, is due to the importance which, for one reason or the other, the centres in which Anu, Enlil, and Ea were worshipped had acquired in the popular mind. Each of the three must have been regarded in his centre as the most important member in a larger or smaller group, so that their union in a triad marks also the combination of the three distinctive pantheons into a harmonious whole.

In the astral theology of Babylonia and Assyria, Anu, Enlil, and Ea became the three zones of the ecliptic, the northern, middle and southern zone respectively. The purely theoretical character of Anu is thus still further emphasized, and in the annals and votive inscriptions as well as in the incantations and hymns, he is rarely introduced as an active force to whom a personal appeal can be made. His name becomes little more than a synonym for the heavens in general and even his title as king or father of the gods has little of the personal element in it. A consort Antum (or as some scholars prefer to read, Anatum) is assigned to him, on the theory that every deity must have a female associate. But Anu spent so much time on the ground protecting the Sumerians he left her in Heaven and then met Innin, whom he renamed Innan, or, "Queen of Heaven". She was later known as Ishtar. Anu resided in her temple the most, and rarely went back up to Heaven.

You will note that in Freemasonry the only requirement to be a mason is to believe in a supreme God, they believe that all Gods are one God and that in this continuity they have found the one true god. The Ancient Arabic Messianic Order of mystics, (Freemasons) welcomes Islam and its God Allah and that of Mohammad joining this into Christianity and all faiths for which we as Christians would call an abomination.  Freemasonry is nothing more than the mystery Babylon the mother of all harlots. Many who practice this mystic cult relate this to the Pharisee’s and the ancient temple worship of Solomon, those adherents further claim that America is the replacement for Israel and that the Tribe of Judah continues on through America and this cultic Temple worship. The heart of Masonry seems to be rooted in Satanic rituals and mystic services that have no relation to anything Christlike in my opinion. What I do see are the manipulations of science, the allure of some kind of subculture and fraternity. Those of ancient times who were to be the watchers of mankind have slipped into the abyss of darkness believing themselves to have divine province to destroy mankind in a way of ushering in a new era of enlightenment. Is it not ironic that this divine province is also claimed in Isaiah 14:12-21 by Satan himself?

Also see additional information Under Gebal, Gebalites, Cronus, Saturn, and others. I will be adding new pages as time allows. Please see the following;


The pantheon of Emesa

All gods of the pantheon of the Arabian city Emesa, in Syria, had Semitic names, with one exception: the supreme god Elagabal. He was a Sun god, which suggests an earlier origin and makes this god a local deity, probably related to similar gods from Canaan. The Aramaic name of Elagabal is Ilaha Gabal, or Gebal and sometimes Gibil  meaning "God of the mountain".

Mountain gods were known in Anatolia, Syria, and Palestine since Hittite times, and they continued to be venerated up until the Roman age. They were often portrayed with eagles. The Syrian Sun-bird was seen as servant and messenger of the god. Later, the worshippers of Elagabal were influenced by the cult of the venerably old Babylonian sun god Šamaš. Elagabal has also been compared to the Chaldaean god Gibil, which can be translated as "god of the black stone". Gebal is a Semitic root which means "to create". This is also found in Islam with the Kaaba stone that is black and venerated among their followers. The Bible mentions a town called Bethel; an echo of the old belief can be found in Psalm 28.1, where God is likened to a rock, and at a later stage, the prophets of Israel and Judah polemized against the worshippers of these stones. In our own age, Muslims worship God in the Kaaba in Mecca, which contains a famous black stone that was already a cult object before the ministry of the prophet Muhammad.

   Triads were not uncommon in Syrian and Mesopotamian cities, and Elagabal, the personification of a male principle and fertile warmth, had two female consorts of Semitic origin: Atargatis can be compared to the Phrygian goddess Cybele, the "great mother";  the other female deity, Astarte, resembles Aphrodite. She offered water and fertility to the people, and was immensely popular in Syria. Lucian's treatise The Syrian goddess offers much information on this cult, which shows similarities to the cult of Elagabal.

The cult of Elagabal

According to the Greek-Roman historian Herodian, who witnessed how the cult of Sol Invictus (the invincible sun) Elagabal was introduced in Rome by the emperor Heliogabalus (218-222), the worship of Elagabal was not a local phenomenon, but was known in adjacent territories as well. Sacrifices were brought to Emesa by the inhabitants of the surrounding areas. It is believed that the cult of Elagabal was the principal cult of Syria and that Emesa was its main religious center. The Syrian sun god was also known outside Syria; in the mid-second century CE, a dedication was made to Elagabal in a town called Laurium in Germania Inferior, at the opposite end of the Roman world.

Elagabal had always been worshipped with much pomp and devotion, accompanied by music and dancing. He had no statue, but was venerated as a black stone with a round base and a pointed top. This conic stone, a baetyl, showed several indefinable markings. On coins, it is usually shown with an eagle spreading its wings over the object in a protective way. Such stones were very important in Syrian-Phoenician religion.  Herodian gives us a detailed account of the most important festival of the god, which, he says, was celebrated in mid-summer and shows, according to modern scholars, great similarity to the Akitu festival (the Babylonian New Year), which was celebrated in April. During the festival, the god Marduk was carried around in a chariot decorated with gold, silver and precious gems and accompanied by the cult images of the other gods. These images were brought to the festival house outside Babylon. The king brought gifts and sacrifices to the gods and in return they gave the people oracles. The day after the festivities the god was brought back to the city and celebrated his return with the goddess Sarpanitu.  All cult acts were conducted by the high priest. Eastern priests served only their own deity and did everything in their power to propagate the cult. Any man, no matter what his status was, could fill a priestly office. This was quite different from the situation in Rome, where priests were usually of noble birth and combined their office with political or administrative offices. This created tensions when Elagabal was introduced in the west,  As the written sources offer a poor chronological framework, scholars have used coins and inscriptions to create a chronology. The first coins of Heliogabalus' reign hardly portray Sol Invictus Elagabal. Only four coins dating from around 220 depict the god.

The written sources do not contradict the conclusion that the cultic reforms took place in 220. During Heliogabalus' long absence from Rome at the beginning of his reign, he had only given instructions that the god Sol Invictus Elagabal should be included in prayers and mentioned during sacrifices. According to Herodian, it was after Heliogabalus' arrival in Rome (in the late summer of 219) that he introduced his god and the other religious reforms were set in order.

The author of the Historia Augusta accuses Heliogabalus of depriving the other gods of their status by making Elagabal the most important god ("Heliogabalus", 7.4ff). One god was chamberlain to the supreme god, the other a slave. The emperor wished that every form of worship was included in the cult of Heliogabalus this would remind one, of the practice in Freemasonry, of unilateral worship as long as you believe in a supreme god. According to Cassius Dio, Heliogabalus placed Sol Invictus Elagabal above Jupiter, who relates to Marduk and seen as the Archer of the astrological sign of Sagittarius, I have related him as the Archer of Islam and the first rider of the Apocalypse of Revelation 6:1-2 going about conquering and to conquer in modern times.  Heliogabalus placed  him In all aspects of daily life and he presented himself as this new god's high priest. The cult was to take place on the Palatine one of the seven hills of Rome,  near the imperial palace. None of this forces us to assume that Heliogabalus had already placed his god above Jupiter before 220.  One might assume that this rise of Sol Invictus Elagalbal may relate to Saturn, and the sign of Capricorn, also called Nintura and Ninib of Babylon and it is this point that the truth come to light. How? Because Gebal the place known as Byblos today part of the ancient Phoenician, Tyre Empire, becomes to come full circle to Freemasonry, Hiram Abi a Gebalite of Tyre, his mother of the tribe of Naphtali was hired to build the Temple of Solomon as a master craftsman. Slomon fell prey to false worship of these men and was rejected by God 1 Kings 11

By today’s standards the sign of Capricorn the half beast and half Fish is the sign of Chrislam, the emergence of Christianity and the Islamic faiths, and the goat of Mendes who is the Goat of Median, also known as Baphomet in French. Capricorn or Saturn is the angel of death also called the grim reaper and known for his scythe, ancient Byblos claims that the builder of their city was Cronus the god of Harvest who castrated his father sky (Uranus) and ushered in the golden age. Cronus is also known as father time who brings in the end of the age. These two gods in ancient times were understood to be one and the same. (see Suntilla, and the Saturnalia.  In the book of Revelation he is the fourth angel of the Apocalypse on the pale horse Revelation 6:7-8 you will notice he comes with Hades, who is associated with the planet Pluto, who rules the astrological sign of Scorpio. Now this may not seem to amount to much until one looks to revelation 9 when the mystery of who Hades and death are read revelation 9:10-12 for clarity the fourth angel is revealed after the holy spirit is removed in 2 Thes.2 the angel of death is Abaddon/ Apollyon/ Apollo/ Satan the destroyer. Continuing on……………….

Another question is when Heliogabalus accepted the title of sacerdos amplissimus dei Solis Invicti Elagabali. It held more authority than pontifex maximus and on coins it was placed before the abbreviation p.m. After careful research of several coins, scholars tend to date Heliogabalus' priestly title between 220 and 222. Perhaps a more precise date can be given when one studies Heliogabalus' image. The coins show us four stages:

a boy's portrait;

a boy with slightly longer sideburns

sideburns up to the chin and a hardly recognizable mustache

emperor with a full beard.

The latter usually portrays the emperor as priest. Only two images of the young boy carry the title of sacerdos amplissimus at the back. The coins of the full bearded emperor are usually dated in 221. The ancient biographies

Life (Asia)

Life (Rome)

Religious policy (1)

Religious policy (2)



 In short: during the first year-and-a-half of Heliogabalus' reign, the god was hardly propagated. It is only in 220 that a break can be seen with the old policy. Heliogabalus showed his independence and free will. Early in the same year, he married Julia Aquilia Severa.

A temple was built to Sol Invictus and many altars were built around it. The new shrine was dedicated to the god in c.220/221. It stood on the Palatine and was enormous. The terrace had already been constructed by the emperor Domitian (81-96) (who was in power during the time of the apostle Johns exile to Patmos where he wrote the book of Revelation, we know the dates because Antipas was murdered in Pergamos in 92 AD according to Christian tradition) many believe that this terrace may originally have been dedicated to Jupiter. Heliogabalus now enlarged the terrace and devoted a temple to Sol Invictus Elagabal. After his death, the temple was rededicated to Jupiter by Severus Alexander. Today only the terrace and the foundations of the temple remain.

The author of the Historia Augusta reports that after building the temple, Heliogabalus moved the emblems of the Great Mother, the fire of Vesta, the palladium (a statue of Minerva), the shields of the Salii and other sacred objects to the new sanctuary. As soon as he entered the city, however, neglecting all the affairs of the provinces, he established Elagabalus as a god on the Palatine Hill close to the imperial palace; and he built him a temple, to which he desired to transfer the emblem of the Great Mother, the fire of Vesta, the Palladium, the shields of the Salii, and all that the Romans held sacred, purposing that no god might be worshipped at Rome save only Elagabalus. He declared, furthermore, that the religions of the Jews and the Samaritans and the rites of the Christians must also be transferred p113 to this place, in order that the priesthood of Elagabalus might include the mysteries of every form of worship. (This my friends is the heart of Freemasonry) These were considered to be severe acts of sacrilege. For instance, the statue of Minerva had been hidden from sight and was not to be moved from its place in the temple of Vesta, yet Heliogabalus had entered the holy shrine, had touched the statue, and ordered its removal. He soon gave up the palladium under the pretense that his god was displeased with Minerva. 

 Instead, the celestial Juno (Tanit) was ordered to come from Carthage. She was to marry Sol Invictus Elagabal. Dio also mentions this divine marriage, which he calls an absurdity (Roman History, 80). The author of the Historia Augusta remarks that Heliogabalus was initiated in the rites of the Great Mother and took part in the taurobolium-rites in order to steal her holy objects as well .

  The festival of Sol Invictus Elagabal

The intensity of the cult many say cannot be known because of lack of evidence but the truth is hidden among those things known of it and traced through what we have seen today. We know, however, about a college of priests that stood under Heliogabalus' personal authority this was to be known as the craft. Thanks to Herodian, we also know about the main festival of Sol Invictus Elagabal, which took place each year in mid-summer. The festival consisted of sacrifices to the god and festivities for the people. The baetyl (Baetyl (or Baitylos, Beth-El): a venerated stone, believed to be in some sense the "house of god", compare this also to the stone of Islamic faith god in the Kaaba in Mecca.) was carried in a chariot bestowed with gold, silver and precious gems. The chariot was drawn by six magnificent white horses also clad in gold and beautiful ornaments. The emperor walked in front of the chariot, holding the bridles of the horses and his eyes fixed on the cult image. He walked all the way to a temple that lay in an outlying district of the city near the old temple of Hope. The other images of the gods in Rome were carried along in the procession as well as precious temple dedications and imperial standards. The cavalry joined the procession and bodyguards flanked the emperor much like they do with our modern presidency. After the necessary sacrifices the emperor bestowed precious items upon the people. (This liberalitas is recorded for both 220 and 221.)  On the next day, the gods were brought back to the Palatine. The resemblance to the Akitu (In Babylonian religion it came to be dedicated to Marduk's victory over Tiamat ) festival from ancient Babylon, although now redefined as cult of Sol Invictus Elagabal, is evident.

The belief in baetyls was also known in ancient Greece, where a baetyl was shown in the sanctuary of Apollo -perhaps a god with an oriental background- in Delphi. However, in the classical age, the Greeks no longer remembered the origin of this cult. To explain its significance, they said that once, in the mythological past, the supreme god Zeus had released two eagles at the edges of the earth, which had met each other above the sacred city. A monument was erected to celebrate the outcome of this mytho-scientific experiment: it was called the omphalos ('navel').  I also want to relate again that Apollo is related to Helios and Apollyon  from Revelation 9 there can be no doubt of this if one would do some research online.

  High Priest of Sol Invictus Elagabal

As high priest of the Sol Invictus cult Heliogabalus performed his ecstatic rites. Every morning he would appear in public, clad in his expensive Syrian robes and jewelry. (according to our written sources), he was the first and only Roman emperor to dress in robes of pure, Chinese silk.  Accompanied by dancing women and music produced on flutes and drums, he performed the sacrifices to his god with the help of a college of priests under his rule.  His grandmother, Julia Maesa, was already deeply concerned with this behavior and tried to persuade her grandson to wear Roman clothing. This he refused. Cassius Dio calls his clothing barbaric and records  the emperor's nickname "the Assyrian"  The Roman populace, on the other hand, may not have found his appearance as startling as Julia Maesa feared, considering that Heliogabalus had sent an image of himself before his arrival. Besides, many Romans already worshipped oriental gods.

During the rituals, the Senate and equestrian order -people with a very traditional outlook- were obliged to be present. The entrails and spices were carried by military prefects and important officials who were clad in Phoenician style as well. Heliogabalus believed he honored these men by granting them this privilege, but it is likely that they had some mental reservations. Conservatives who mocked the emperor and disapproved of his way of life, were executed, this reminds me of the threat many conservatives of today are looking for to happen in present America under the current Obama, administration.

 Several things were required of the high priest of Sol Invictus Elagabal, because Dio speaks of the emperor's circumcision and his abstinence from pork( This id defiantly indicative of Islam and the beliefs of the Hebrews and Arabs). The historian also says that Heliogabalus had made plans to cut off his genitals altogether, but Dio does not believe that this had to do with the emperor's religion. Instead, he presents it as evidence of Heliogabalus' effeminacy. The circumcision, however, was carried out on other followers as well. All other facets of this religion were barbaric in Dio's eyes. The chanting, the innumerable amulets, animals that were kept either in the palace or in the temple, child sacrifice: Dio's catalogue of horrors is endless . Dio states; Jews and Egyptians also circumcised their boys and abstained from pork, and the Romans had no difficulties with these customs. The fault Dio finds in Heliogabalus is that he was an emperor and had to represent everything that the Roman people stood for. In order to stand at the top of the nation, an emperor was expected to set a good example in Roman virtues. Circumcision and abstaining from pork did not belong on this list. Dio was a senator, a conservative, and an elitarian.

  Heliogabalus' self-castration was not uncommon too. In Hierapolis, the Syrians venerated another triad of gods: the weather god Hadad, his wife Atargatis and one Semeion. Atargatis was the most outstanding of the three and very popular in Syria. She resembles the Phrygian goddess Cybele: she was a fertility goddess, mother of the gods and mother of the city. Like Elagabal, Cybele was also worshipped as a baetyl. Cybele is known to have had her own castrated priests named galloi. As Cybele and Atargatis are twins, it is not unlikely that castration was part of the Atargatis cult as well.  According to Lucian's The Syrian goddess, Atargatis had a temple where fish and wild animals were kept. This corresponds with the zoo in Rome mentioned by Cassius Dio and the author of the Historia Augusta. Wild animals, moreover, are a typical attribute of Cybele.

  The Syrian Atargatis cult explains the prostitution and castration that are mentioned as aspects of the cultic reforms of Heliogabalus. They were acts of purification or fertility - blood and sperm to renew the earth. On the other hand, it is unlikely that Heliogabalus actually castrated himself. If he would have had these plans, many subjects would have tried to persuade him not to carry them out. Heliogabalus is also accused of child sacrifice. This charge has been noted in Cassius Dio and in the Historia Augusta . It is a lot more serious than the other charges. The author of the Historia Augusta says that the emperor chose beautiful, noble, young boys for these sacrifices, whose parents were still alive - all this in order to inflict more sadness and mourning. The sacrifices were carried out by magicians who studied the entrails afterwards.  Few scholars have been willing to accept this charge, which portrays Heliogabalus as a true monster. They see this information as another attempt to discredit the emperor and Semitic culture, but as noted before this man was not practicing Judaism per say, but the ancient mysticism that was likely practiced by the Pharisees that which came back from Babylon, after the captivity. Furthermore Jesus himself withstood these men calling them whitewashed tombs, and stating; the stone the builders rejected has become the chief cornerstone. Many in defenses of Heliogabalus say It was a stereotypical accusation which was also thrown at Jews, Christians and Isis devotees. And in fact, the way the child sacrifice is described by Dio, including the inspection of the entrails, looks more like an old Etruscan tradition than a Semitic cult act. We know that the reading of entrails was at one time common among the Hebrews of old and in fact may have had its roots in ancient Egyptology and its priests.

However, human sacrifice did occur in Phoenician cults for which Gebal,has its roots in Byblos, Tyre and many more and was perhaps also known and practiced in Emesa. Child sacrifice has been attested for in the Bible and was practiced by the Canaanites; its existence is also suggested by many sarcophagi and stelae in Carthage another city of the Gebalites or Gibilites. Although child sacrifice was forbidden in Tyre after the conquests of Alexander the Great, it was still practiced in Carthage in the second century BCE. It cannot be excluded that this practice also continued to be performed in Emesa.  Some also argue on the other hand, the charge is not incomparable to charges against modern Catholics about the Inquisition and the trial of Galilei , hardly relevant, partly incorrect, and the stuff of which propaganda is made but of the roots there can be no doubt.

Another form of this worship and related to Gibil comes from ancient Babylonian worship of Nergal whom was Nimrod as we will see.

   The name Nergal, Nirgal, or Nirgali refers to a deity in Babylon with the main seat of his cult at Cuthah represented by the mound of Tell-Ibrahim a location about 50 miles south of Bagdad.  Nergal is mentioned in the bible as the deity of the city of Cuth (Cuthah): "And the men of Babylon made Succoth-benoth, and the men of Cuth made Nergal" (2 Kings, 17:30). He is the son of Enlil and Ninlil.

Nergal actually seems to be in part a solar deity, sometimes identified with Shamash, but only a representative of a certain phase of the sun. Portrayed in hymns and myths as a god of war and pestilence, Nergal seems to represent the sun of noontime and of the summer solstice that brings destruction, high summer being the dead season in the Mesopotamian annual cycle. Nergal was also the deity who presides over the netherworld, and who stands at the head of the special pantheon assigned to the government of the dead (supposed to be gathered in a large subterranean cave known as Aralu or Irkalla). In this capacity he has associated with him a goddess Allatu or Ereshkigal, though at one time Allatu may have functioned as the sole mistress of Aralu, ruling in her own person. In some texts the god Ninazu is the son of Nergal and Allatu/Ereshkigal.

Ordinarily Nergal pairs with his consort Laz. Standard iconography pictured Nergal as a lion, and boundary-stone monuments symbolise him with a mace surmounted by the head of a lion.

Nergal's fiery aspect (Like Gibil the god of fire)  appears in names or epithets such as Lugalgira, Sharrapu ("the burner," a reference to his manner of dealing with outdated teachings), Erra, (((((Gibil ))))))  A certain confusion exists in cuneiform literature between Ninurta and Nergal. Nergal has epithets such as the "raging king," the "furious one," and the like. A play upon his name—separated into three elements as Ne-uru-gal (lord of the great dwelling) -- expresses his position at the head of the nether-world pantheon. In the late Babylonian astral-theological system Nergal is related to the planet Mars. As a fiery god of destruction and war, Nergal doubtless seemed an appropriate choice for the red planet, and he was equated by the Greeks either to the combative demigod Heracles (Latin Hercules) or to the war-god Ares (Latin Mars) -- hence the current name of the planet. In Babylonian ecclesiastical art the great lion-headed colossi serving as guardians to the temples and palaces seem to symbolise Nergal, just as the bull-headed colossi probably typify Ninurta Remember that in this thought Negal is Mars, but Nintura represents Saturn, the cross pollination or crossing of these gods comes from antiquity in that they believed in a triad god consisting of Nergal, Raamah, and Nanna Suen who was known as Sin” the moon god.

Nergal's chief temple at Cuthah bore the name Meslam from which we get the word Muslim, also its variations such as Mesilim, from which the god receives the designation of Meslamtaeda or Meslamtaea, "the one that rises up from Meslam". The name Meslamtaeda/Meslamtaea indeed is found as early as the list of gods from Fara while the name Nergal only begins to appear in the Akkadian period.  Muslim is not a creation of Mohammad and in fact can be traced to about 2700 BC the name has its origins from the ancient kings list, listed as the first dynasty of UR and the King known as Mesh-Ane—pada also called the king of Kish to show his hegemony influence .  Amongst the Hurrians and later Hittites Nergal was known as Aplu, a name derived from the Akkadian Aplu Enlil, meaning "the son of Enlil". As God of the plague, he was invoked during the "plague years" during the reign of Suppiluliuma, when this disease spread from Egypt.

The cult of Nergal does not appear to have spread as widely as that of Ninurta aka (Capricorn or Saturn), but in the late Babylonian and early Persian period, syncretism seems to have fused the two divinities, which were invoked together as if they were identical. Hymns and votive and other inscriptions of Babylonian and Assyrian rulers frequently invoke him, but we do not learn of many temples to him outside of Cuthah. Sennacherib speaks of one at Tarbisu to the north of Nineveh, but significantly, although Nebuchadnezzar II (606 BC - 586 BC), the great temple-builder of the neo-Babylonian monarchy, alludes to his operations at Meslam in Cuthah, he makes no mention of a sanctuary to Nergal in Babylon. Local associations with his original seat—Kutha—and the conception formed of him as a god of the dead acted in making him feared rather than actively worshipped, one reason is he represented the end of the world or the end of the age. He was the grim reaper and the one said to hold the souls of evil men. Nergal was also called Ni-Marad in Akkadian. Like Lugal Marad in Sumerian, the name means "king of Marad," a city, whose name means "Rebellion" in Akkadian, as yet unidentified. The name Ni-Marad, in Akkadian means "Lord of Marad". The chief deity of this place dates to around 2700 BC, therefore, seems to have been Nergal, of whom, therefore, Lugal-Marad or Ni-Marad is another name. Thus, Most scholars have drawn the connection of Ni-Marad being yet another deified name for Nimrod, the rebel king of Babylon and Assyria mentioned in Genesis 10: 8-11

Nergal in demonology

Being a deity of the desert, god of fire, which is one of negative aspects of the sun, god of the underworld, and also being a god of one of the religions which rivalled Christianity and Judaism, Nergal was sometimes called a demon and even being identified with Satan. According to Collin de Plancy and Johann Weyer, Nergal was said to be the chief of Hell's "secret police", and said to be "an honorary spy in the service of Beelzebub". Nergal, in Mesopotamian religion, secondary god of the Sumero-Akkadian pantheon. He was identified with Irra, the god of scorched earth and war, and with Meslamtaea, He Who Comes Forth from (((( Meslam (Muslim). Cuthah (modern Tall Ibrahim) was the chief centre of his cult. In later thought he was a “destroying flame” and had the epithet sharrapu (“burner”). Assyrian documents of the 1st millennium BC describe him as a benefactor of men, who hears prayers, restores the dead to life, and protects agriculture and flocks. Hymns depict him as a god of pestilence, hunger, and devastation.

Mesilim or Mesalim (c. 2500 BC) was lugal (king) of the Sumerian city-state of Kish.

Though his name is missing from the Sumerian king list, Mesilim  (Muslim)is among the earliest historical figures recorded in archaeological documents. He was a monarch in the 3rd Dynasty of Kish, reigning sometime in the "Early Dynastic III" period (ca. 2500-2330 BC). Inscriptions from his reign state that he sponsored temple construction in both Adab and Lagash, where he apparently enjoyed some suzerainty. Mesilim is best known for having acted as mediator in a conflict between Lugal-sha-engur, his ensi in Lagash, and the neighboring rival city state of Umma, regarding the rights to use an irrigation canal on the border between the two. After asking the opinion of the god Satarana (Saturn), Mesilim established a new border between Lagash and Umma, and erected a pillar to mark it, on which he wrote his final decision. This solution was not to be permanent; a later king of Umma, Ush, destroyed the pillar in an act of defiance.

In the 1950s, Sumerologist E. Gordon reviewed the literary evidence and suggested a tentative theory that Mesilim and King Mesannepada of Ur, who later in his reign also assumed the title "King of Kish", were in fact one and the same. Both names are known elsewhere from a unique Mesopotamian proverb about the king whose temple was torn down. In Sumerian version, the proverb reads "The E-babbar which Mesilim had built, Annane, the man whose seed was cut off, tore down." E-babbar was the temple in Lagash, and Gordon took Annane to be a corruption of the name A-anne-pada, i.e. Mes-anne-pada's own son. The much later Akkadian proverb reads "The temple which Mesannepadda had built, Nanna, whose seed was picked off, tore down". Now it should be noted that Nanna is none other than Nanna  Suen, the shortened version is Sin, the god called Sin also known as the moon god. “Nanna Suen SIN” as represented in the flags of Islam.

Mesannepada (or Mesh-Ane-pada, "hero chosen by Heaven", sometimes called Nanne) was the first king listed for the first dynasty of Ur (ca. the 25th century BC) on the Sumerian king list. He is listed to have ruled for 80 years, having overthrown Lugal-kitun of Uruk. Mesannepada gave gifts to the kings of Mari and according to a lapis lazuli bead inscription found there, his father was Meskalamdug. Seals from the royal cemetery at Ur have also been found bearing the names of Mesannepada and his predecessors Meskalamdug and Akalamdug, along with Queen Puabi.

Mesannepada, and his son and successor Meskiang-nanna, are both named on the Tummal Inscription as upkeepers of the main temple in Nippur following Gilgamesh of Uruk and his son Ur-Nungal, verifying their status as overlords of Sumer. Judging from the inscriptions, Mesannepada then assumed the title "King of Kish", to indicate his hegemony. It is of interest to mention that Saul the first king of the Israelites, his father’s name was Kish of the tribe of Benjamin, found in 1 Samuel  9:1-2 in 10:11 Saul is numbered among the prophets and later anointed the king of Israel until he sinned and God anointed King David in his stead.

The ancient Kings list for the Kingdom of Kish reads like a who’s who list with tales of long life and is said to start after the flood, although we know as for Israel they had no King until Saul, they had only judges to rule over their loosely knit confederation of Israel. Is it not quite Ironic that Meslim or Muslim is a king from this rejected line in the linage of Saul a Benjamite.

Another son of Mesannepada, named A-anne-pada, is known for having a temple constructed (at modern Ubaid), though he is not named on the king list.

In the 1950s, Edmund I. Gordon conjectured that Mesannepada, and an archaeologically attested early "king of Kish", Mesilim, were one and the same, as their names were interchanged in certain proverbs in later Babylonian tablets; however this has not proved conclusive. More recent scholars tend to regard them as distinct, usually placing Mesilim in Kish before Mesannepada.

At first when you look at the kings list it make little sense until we put it into perspective and it starts to take up some strange relevance as we will see below.

The following reigns were measured in Sumerian numerical units known as sars (units of 3600), ners (units of 600), and sosses (units of 60).

Ruler Epithet Length of reign Approx. dates Comments

"After the kingship descended from heaven, the kingship was in Eridug. In Eridug, Alulim became king; he ruled for 28800 years."

Alulim  8 sars (28,800 years) 30th century BC or earlier 

Alalngar  10 sars (36,000 years)  

"Then Eridug fell and the kingship was taken to Bad-tibira."

En-men-lu-ana  12 sars (43,200 years)  

En-men-gal-ana  8 sars (28,800 years)  

Dumuzid, the Shepherd  "the shepherd" 10 sars (36,000 years)  

"Then Bad-tibira fell and the kingship was taken to Larag."

En-sipad-zid-ana  8 sars (28,800 years)  

"Then Larag fell and the kingship was taken to Zimbir."

En-men-dur-ana  5 sars and 5 ners (21,000 years)  

"Then Zimbir fell and the kingship was taken to Shuruppag."

Ubara-Tutu  5 sars and 1 ner (18,600 years)  

"Then the flood swept over." This is presumed when Noah built the Ark

Excavations in Iraq have revealed evidence of localized flooding at Shuruppak (modern Tell Fara, Iraq) and various other Sumerian cities. A layer of riverine sediments, radiocarbon dated to ca. 2900 BC, interrupts the continuity of settlement, extending as far north as the city of Kish. Polychrome pottery from the Jemdet Nasr period (3000-2900 BC) was discovered immediately below the Shuruppak flood stratum. This is not to say that the date for Noah’s flood is at this time, it only means that some flood took place,

Early Bronze Age II  First Dynasty of Kish Ruler Epithet Length of reign Approx. dates Comments

"After the flood had swept over, and the kingship had descended from heaven, the kingship was in Kish."

Ngushur  1200 years after ca. 2900 BC   

Kullassina-bel  960 years                            

Nangishlishma  670 years                          

En-tarah-ana  420 years                             

Babum  300 years                                       

Puannum  840 years                                    

Kalibum  960 years                                       

Kalumum  840 years                                    

Zuqaqip  900 years                                        

Atab (or A-ba)  600 years                                

Mashda "the son of Atab" 840 years            

Arwium "the son of Mashda" 720

Etana  "the shepherd, who ascended to heaven and consolidated all the foreign countries" 1500 years  

Balih "the son of Etana" 400 years                 

En-me-nuna  660 years  

Melem-Kish "the son of En-me-nuna" 900 years  

Barsal-nuna ("the son of En-me-nuna")* 1200 years  

Zamug "the son of Barsal-nuna" 140 years  

Tizqar "the son of Zamug" 305 years  

Ilku  900 years  

Iltasadum  1200 years  

En-me-barage-si "who made the land of Elam submit" 900 years ca. 2600 BC the earliest ruler on the List confirmed independently from epigraphical evidence

Aga of Kish "the son of En-me-barage-si" 625 years ca. 2600 BC contemporary with Gilgamesh of Uruk, according to the Epic of Gilgamesh

"Then Kish was defeated and the kingship was taken to E-ana."

First Dynasty of Uruk Ruler Epithet Length of reign Approx. dates Comments

Mesh-ki-ang-gasher of E-ana "the son of Utu" 324 years ca. 27th 

"Mesh-ki-ang-gasher entered the sea and disappeared."

Enmerkar "the son of Mesh-ki-ang-gasher, the king of Unug, who built Unug (Uruk)" 420 years  

Lugalbanda "the shepherd" 1200 years  

Dumuzid (Dumuzi) "the fisherman whose city was Kuara."

("He captured En-me-barage-si single-handed.")* 100 years ca. 2600 BC 

Gilgamesh "whose father was a phantom (?), the lord of Kulaba" 126 years ca. 2600 BC contemporary with Aga of Kish, according to the Epic of Gilgamesh

Ur-Nungal "the son of Gilgamesh" 30 years  

Udul-kalama "the son of Ur-Nungal" 15 years  

La-ba'shum  9 years  

En-nun-tarah-ana  8 years  

Mesh-he "the smith" 36 years  

Melem-ana  6 years  

Lugal-kitun  36 years  

"Then Unug was defeated and the kingship was taken to Urim (Ur)."

Early Bronze Age III First dynasty of Ur Ruler Epithet Length of reign Approx. dates Comments

Mesh-Ane-pada  80 years ca. 26th century BC   (This is the one known as Muslim) he was later called the king of kish to express his power and hedgemony

Mesh-ki-ang-Nanna "the son of Mesh-Ane-pada" 36 years  

Elulu  25 years  

Balulu  36 years  

"Then Urim was defeated and the kingship was taken to Awan."

Dynasty of AwanRuler Epithet Length of reign Approx. dates Comments

Three kings of Awan  356 years ca. 26th century BC 

"Then Awan was defeated and the kingship was taken to Kish."

Second Dynasty of Kish Ruler Epithet Length of reign Approx. dates Comments

Susuda "the fuller" 201 years ca. 26th century BC 

Dadasig  81 years  

Mamagal "the boatman" 360 years  

Kalbum "the son of Mamagal" 195 years  

Tuge  360 years  

Men-nuna "the son of Tuge" 180 years  

(Enbi-Ishtar)  290 years  

Lugalngu  360 years  

"Then Kish was defeated and the kingship was taken to Hamazi."


The First Dynasty of Lagash (ca. 2500 – ca. 2271 BC) is not mentioned in the King List, though it is well known from inscriptions


Dynasty of HamaziRuler Epithet Length of reign Approx. dates Comments

Hadanish  360 years ca. 2500 BC 

"Then Hamazi was defeated and the kingship was taken to Unug (Uruk)."


Second Dynasty of Uruk Ruler Epithet Length of reign Approx. dates Comments

En-shag-kush-ana  60 years ca. 25th century BC said to have conquered parts of Sumer; then Eannatum of Lagash claims to have taken over Sumer, Kish, and all Mesopotamia. Kug-Bau of Kish is said to have gained independence from Lagash, and his Uruk, after Entemena's death.

Lugal-kinishe-dudu or Lugal-ure  120 years  contemporary with Entemena of Lagash

Argandea  7 years  

"Then Unug was defeated and the kingship was taken to Urim (Ur)."


Second Dynasty of Ur Ruler Epithet Length of reign Approx. dates Comments

Nanni  120 years ca. 25th century BC 

Mesh-ki-ang-Nanna II "the son of Nanni" 48 years  

(?)  2 years  

"Then Urim was defeated and the kingship was taken to Adab."


Dynasty of Adab Ruler Epithet Length of reign Approx. dates Comments

Lugal-Ane-mundu  90 years ca. 25th century BC said to have conquered all Mesopotamia from the Persian Gulf to the Zagros Mountains and Elam

"Then Adab was defeated and the kingship was taken to Mari."


 Dynasty of Mari Ruler Epithet Length of reign Approx. dates Comments

Anbu  30 years ca. 25th century BC 

Anba "the son of Anbu" 17 years  

Bazi "the leatherworker" 30 years  

Zizi of Mari "the fuller" 20 years  

Limer "the 'gudug' priest" 30 years  

Sharrum-iter  9 years  

"Then Mari was defeated and the kingship was taken to Kish."


Third Dynasty of Kish Ruler Epithet Length of reign Approx. dates Comments

Kug-Bau (Kubaba) "the woman tavern-keeper, who made firm the foundations of Kish" 100 years ca. 25th century BC the only known woman in the King List; said to have gained independence from En-anna-tum I of Lagash and En-shag-kush-ana of Uruk; contemporary with Puzur-Nirah of Akshak, according to the later Chronicle of the É-sagila

"Then Kish was defeated and the kingship was taken to Akshak."

Dynasty of AkshakRuler Epithet Length of reign Approx. dates Comments

Unzi  30 years ca. 25th – 24th century BC 

Undalulu  6 years  

Urur  6 years  

Puzur-Nirah  20 years  contemporary with Kug-Bau of Kish, according to the later Chronicle of É-sagila

Ishu-Il  24 years  

Shu-Suen of Akshak "the son of Ishu-Il" 7 years  

"Then Akshak was defeated and the kingship was taken to Kish."

Fourth Dynasty of Kish Ruler Epithet Length of reign Approx. dates Comments

Puzur-Suen "the son of Kug-Bau" 25 years ca. 24th – 23rd century BC 

Ur-Zababa "the son of Puzur-Suen" 400 (6?) years ca. 2300 BC according to the king list, Sargon of Akkad was his cup-bearer

Zimudar  30 years  

Usi-watar "the son of Zimudar" 7 years  

Eshtar-muti  11 years  

Ishme-Shamash  11 years  

(Shu-ilishu)*  (15 years)*  

Nanniya "the jeweller" 7 years ca. 2303-2296 BC (short) 

"Then Kish was defeated and the kingship was taken to Unug (Uruk)."


Third Dynasty of Uruk Ruler Epithet Length of reign Approx. dates Comments

Lugal-zage-si  25 years ca. 2296–2271 BC (short) said to have defeated Urukagina of Lagash, as well as Kish and other Sumerian cities, creating a unified kingdom; he in turn was overthrown by Sargon of Akkad

"Then Unug was defeated and the kingship was taken to Agade (Akkad)"

Dynasty of Akkad Ruler Epithet Length of reign Approx. dates Comments

Sargon of Akkad "whose father was a gardener, the cupbearer of Ur-Zababa, became king, the king of Agade, who built Agade" 40 years ca. 2270–2215 BC (short) defeated Lugal-zage-si of Uruk, took over Sumer, and created the Akkadian Empire

Rimush of Akkad "the son of Sargon" 9 years ca. 2214–2206 BC (short) 

Man-ishtishu "the older brother of Rimush, the son of Sargon" 15 years ca. 2205–2191 BC (short) 

Naram-Sin of Akkad "the son of Man-ishtishu" 56 years ca. 2190–2154 BC (short) 

Shar-kali-sharri "the son of Naram-Sin" 25 years ca. 2153–2129 BC (short) 

"Then who was king? Who was the king?"





 "and the 4 of them ruled for only 3 years"  ca. 2128–2125 BC (short) 

Dudu of Akkad  21 years ca. 2125–2104 BC (short) 

Shu-Durul "the son of Dudu" 15 years ca. 2104–2083 BC (short) Akkad falls to the Gutians

"Then Agade was defeated and the kingship was taken to Unug (Uruk)."


Fourth Dynasty of Uruk(Possibly rulers of lower Mesopotamia contemporary with the Dynasty of Akkad)

Ruler Epithet Length of reign Approx. dates Comments

Ur-ningin  7 years ca. 2091? – 2061? BC (short) 

Ur-gigir "the son of Ur-ningin" 6 years  

Kuda  6 years  

Puzur-ili  5 years  

Ur-Utu (or Lugal-melem) ("the son of Ur-gigir")* 25 years  

"Unug was defeated and the kingship was taken to the army of Gutium."

Early Bronze Age IVThe 2nd Dynasty of Lagash (before ca. 2093–2046 BC (short)) is not mentioned in the King List, though it is well known from inscriptions.


Gutian RuleRuler Epithet Length of reign Approx. dates Comments

"In the army of Gutium, at first no king was famous; they were their own kings and ruled thus for 3 years."

Inkishush  6 years ca. 2147–2050 BC (short) 

Zarlagab  6 years  

Shulme (or Yarlagash)  6 years  

Silulumesh (or Silulu)  6 years  

Inimabakesh (or Duga)  5 years  

Igeshaush (or Ilu-An)  6 years  

Yarlagab  3 years  

Ibate of Gutium  3 years  

Yarla (or Yarlangab)  3 years  

Kurum  1 year  

Apilkin  3 years  

La-erabum  2 years  mace head inscription

Irarum  2 years  

Ibranum  1 year  

Hablum  2 years  

Puzur-Suen "the son of Hablum" 7 years  

Yarlaganda  7 years  foundation inscription at Umma

(?)  7 years  Si-um or Si-u? — foundation inscription at Umma

Tirigan  40 days  defeated by Utu-hengal of Uruk

"Then the army of Gutium was defeated and the kingship taken to Unug (Uruk)."

Fifth Dynasty of Uruk Ruler Epithet Length of reign Approx. dates Comments

Utu-hengal  conflicting dates (427 years / 26 years / 7 years) ca. 2055–2048 BC (short) defeats Tirigan and the Gutians, appoints Ur-Namma governor of Ur

"Then Unug was defeated and the kingship was taken to Urim (Ur)."


Third Dynasty of Ur Ruler Epithet Length of reign Approx. dates Comments

Ur-Namma (Ur-Nammu)  18 years ca. 2047–2030 BC (short) defeats Nammahani of Lagash; contemporary of Utu-hengal of Uruk

Shulgi "the son of Ur-Namma" 46 years ca. 2029–1982 BC (short) possible lunar/solar eclipse 2005 BC

Amar-Suena "the son of Shulgi" 9 years ca. 1981–1973 BC (short) 

Shu-Suen "the son of Amar-Suena" 9 years ca. 1972–1964 BC (short) 

Ibbi-Suen "the son of Shu-Suen" 24 years ca. 1963–1940 BC (short) 

"Then Urim was defeated. The very foundation of Sumer was torn out. The kingship was taken to Isin."

Middle Bronze Age IIndependent Amorite states in lower Mesopotamia.

The Dynasty of Larsa (ca. 1961–1674 BC (short)) from this period is not mentioned in the King List.


Dynasty of Isin Ruler Epithet Length of reign Approx. dates Comments

Ishbi-Erra  33 years ca. 1953–1730 BC (short) contemporary of Ibbi-Suen of Ur

Shu-ilishu "the son of Ishbi-Erra" 20 years  

Iddin-Dagan "the son of Shu-ilishu" 20 years  

Ishme-Dagan "the son of Iddin-Dagan" 20 years  

Lipit-Eshtar "the son of Ishme-Dagan (or Iddin-Dagan)" 11 years  contemporary of Gungunum of Larsa

Ur-Ninurta ("the son of Ishkur, may he have years of abundance, a good reign, and a sweet life")* 28 years  Contemporary of Abisare of Larsa

Bur-Suen "the son of Ur-Ninurta" 21 years  

Lipit-Enlil "the son of Bur-Suen" 5 years  

Erra-imitti  8 years  

Enlil-bani  24 years  contemporary of Sumu-la-El of Babylon. During his reign, the king's gardener, to celebrate the New Year was named 'king for a day' then sacrificed, the "king" died during the celebration; Enlil-Bani remained on the throne.

Zambiya  3 years  contemporary of Sin-Iqisham of Larsa

Iter-pisha  4 years  

Ur-du-kuga  4 years  

Suen-magir  11 years  

(Damiq-ilishu)* ("the son of Suen-magir")* (23 years)*  


* These epithets or names are not included in all versions of the king list.